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FRANCE 



AND HER PEOPLE. 

BOSTO \ P 1 1 LIC UB11 ABY, 
BB1G SGBL 

By C. C. B. 



BI 




PHILADELPHIA 

WILLIAM B. EVANS & CO. 
740 Sanson Street. 



6 




76 



•BH1 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by 

WILLIAM B. EVANS, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 



dfWyOtibblooT 




PREFACE. 



-«♦* 



IN offering this volume to the American 
people, in response to the wishes of many 
friends, my great aim has been to describe 
clearly and correctly, without any exagge- 
ration, the scenes and incidents coming under 
my own observation. I am confident that no 
one could have passed through those thrilling- 
events emotionless or passive ; and leave it 
to the judgment of my readers, and the 
results in the future, whether I have been 
too ardent in my defence of a staunch gov- 
ernment, that so improved and embellished 
France, and placed her first among the 

nations of the civilized world. 

C. C. B. 

3 



CONTENTS. 



«*» 

PAGB 
CHAPTER I. — Embarkation — Sail to the Ocean — Pererie — Captain Duchene 
— Talisman of a good voyage — Sailors — Passengers — Sea life — Sea birds 
— Dolphins — Brest or Havre — Coast of France — Farewells — Landing — 
Custom House — Hotel 7 

CHAPTER II.— Brest— Railways— Morlaix— Flag stations— Fruits— Old cas- 
tles — Rennes — Le Maiu> — Chartres — Buffets — Versailles — Paris — Hotel 
Mirabeau 17 

CHAPTER III. — Carriages — Old Haunts — Sevres — Meudon — Prince Impe- 
rial — Young patriot — Fontainebleau 22 

CHAPTER IV.— Prince Imperial— All Saints Day— Funeral at the Made- 
leine — Pere Lachaise — Tomb of Abelard and Heloise — Column of Ven- 
dome — Queen Hortense and her son 31 

CHAPTER V.— Pont Neuf— St. Cloud— Pont de l'Alma— Circus of the Em- 
press — Zouaves — Palace of Luxembourg — Ney's monument — Wine and 
brandy — Real and imitation jewels 38 

CHAPTER VI. — Bois de Boulogne — Omnibus — Hotel Cluny — Restaurants — 
Colonel's wife — Garden of the Tuileries — Orleans chapel at Neuilly — 
Statue of Napoleon 1 44 

CHAPTER VII.— A short trip— Dijon— Hotel— Shops— Churches— Park- 
Lunatic Asylum — Ma<jon — Bourg — Culoz — Journey to Geneva 57 

CHAPTER VIII. — St. Cloud — Emperor — Prince Imperial — Royal hunt — 
Weddings — Child's remark — Sunday in Paris — Tea 78 

CHAPTER IX. — Sewers — Palais Royal — Street cleaning and paving — Mush- 
rooms — Fruit vendors — Pate de foie gras deStrasbourg 89 

CHAPTER X. — Gobelins — Clock Beauvais — Diorama of Solferino — Champs 

Elysees — Place de la Concorde — A determined woman ioo 

CHAPTER XL — St. Denis — Jardin des Plantes — Washing — Anecdote of a 
waiter — St. Geneviere, or Pantheon ioo 

CHAPTER XII.— Place de la Concorde— Ball at the Tuileries— Opening of 
the Corps Legislatif — Emperor's stables — Catacombs no 

CHAPTER XIII. — Hotel des Invalides— Tomb of Napoleon I. — Anniversary 
of the day the Emperor's remains were deposited at the Invalides 133 

5 



Contents. 



PAGE 

CHAPTER XIV.— Louvre— Notre Dame, the oldest church in Paris— Fur- 
niture wagon and movings — Cheap champagne — Victor Noir — Empress — 
Riot -. 143 

CHAPTER XV.— Hotel de Ville— Ball— Minister Washburne's ball— Palace 

of Versailles — Soap not furnished — Markets 153 

CHAPTER XVI.— Reuil— Malmaison— Germain-en-Laye— Office for lost 
articles — Politeness of trades-people — Scotch church 163 

CHAPTER XVII.— Madeleine— The Emperor's opinion of Mr. Lincoln- 
Skating in the Bois de Boulogne — Jardin d'Acclimatation — Carnival — 
Porte St. Martin— Porte St. Denis 173 

CHAPTER XVIII. — The spirit that existed on our return — Enghien-les-Bains 
— Hotel — Lake — Bail — Concert — Mineral spring — Fishing — Blind man... 183 

CHAPTER XIX. — Bois de Boulogne — Equestrians — Montmorency — Impe- 
rial Library — St. Gratien — Paris before the declaration of war— Price of 
brandy — Balls of different classes — Consideration for servants 190 

CHAPTER XX. — Paris the morning after war was declared — Ball at Enghien 
— Departure from Enghien — Paris — Versailles — Prince Imperial — Bourse 
— False news — Prussian spies — Cent Gardes 201 

CHAPTER XXI. — Departure of the Emperor and Prince Imperial for the 
war — Bois de Boulogne — Fortifications — Avenue de ITmperatrice — Ame- 
rican Sanitary Commission — Regiment leaving — Cantiniere — Mont de 
Piete — Park of Vincennes and Castle 211 

CHAPTER XXII.— Park at Versailles— Old marine— Exciting scene in 
Paris — Prussian spy — Prince Imperial's first battle — Fountains of Ver- 
sailles — A defeat — Touching incident 219 

CHAPTER XXIII. —Excitements continual— Pavilion of Strasbourg- 
Bride's trousseau burnt — Washerwoman at Versailles — Anglo-American 
Ambulance ...-•- 229 

CHAPTER XXIV.— News of Sedan— Fall of the Empire— Our flight to 
Paris — Aspect of the city — Prince Imperial — Passport — Difficulty in leav- 
ing — Journey, and arrival in Dieppe — Scenes at the hotel 235 

CHAPTER XXV.— Dieppe— Return to Paris— Pare de Mo^eau— Spirited 
woman of the Empire — Concealing the Emperor's portraits — Interview 
with a person from Wilhelmshohe — Arrival at Dieppe 248 

CHAPTER XXVL— Journey from Dieppe to Eu— Abbeville— Amiens— Ar- 
rival in Brussels — Adventure of Col. F. — Trip from Ostend to Dover 261 

CHAPTER XXVIL— The Empress abandoned— Her safe arrival in Eng- 
land — Her charities 275 

CHAPTER XXVIII.— King William— Ovations paid the Emperor— Sedan 

in 1871 — Emperor's Fete — Journey to Torquay — Cane 279 

CHAPTER XXIX.— Embarkation — Steamer —Officers— Children— Storms 
— Whales — Sea life — Landing — New York 292 



FRANCE AND HER PEOPLE. 



CHAPTER I. 



Embarkation — Sail to the Ocean — Pererie — Captain Duchene — Talis- 
man of a good voyage — Sailors — Passengers — Sea life — Sea birds 
— Dolphins — Brest or Havre — Coast of France — Farewells — Land- 
ing — Custom House — Hotel. 

TT 7E sailed from New York, September 4th, 
1869, on board the Pererie, of the French 
Trans-Atlantic Company. The excitement was in- 
tense. The rays of the sun poured down their 
scorching heat greatly to the annoyance of many 
persons. The ship was crowded with friends, who 
loved to linger until the last chance was given to go 
on shore. The hurrying hither and thither of cab- 
men, porters and venders of newspapers, all eager 
to catch one more dime, added to the bustle and 
confusion. The last grasp of the hand, the last fond 
kiss, then the rush for the shore. When the anchor is 
weighed you begin to feel the reality of a departure 
from home and friends. The cannons poured forth 

7 



8 France and her People, 

their solemn and long farewell, the vibration strikes 
upon the heart with an unknown sorrow — a yearning 
for the faces we never more may see. The most try- 
ing moment is when the last good-byes with the pilot 
are interchanged; then you realize that the last link 
is broken that bound you to the shore. 

I proceeded to the bow, wishing to obtain a po- 
sition to enjoy the scenery that would rapidly recede 
from my gaze. There I stood spell-bound, my eyes 
riveted on the land, where many dear ones remained. 
I smothered my grief, determined to conquer the 
home sorrow, and look from self to Nature in her 
beauties. The broad sparkling bay was covered 
with crafts out-going and in-coming; we passed them 
all. Soon palatial summer abodes, deep wooded banks, 
the forts, yes, the very air, we left far in the dis- 
tance, and with pleasure I inhaled the pure saline 
breeze as it rose from the bosom of the deep deep 
sea. The ocean was calm ; not a ripple agitated its 
vast bosom. After leaving Sandy Hook, the bound- 
less expanse of old ocean was our only surrounding. 
Soon we passed the United States mail steamer, for 
no ship can outsail the Pererie; she has made the 
quickest voyages of any steamer from the American 
ports to the continent. The Pererie was built at the 
celebrated ship-yard of Mr. Napier, on the Clyde; 
she has forty-two furnaces ; it requires fifty-two men 
to attend to the fires. I was charmed with the or- 



France and her People. g 

der and neatness of the crew, and the quiet, dignified 
manner in which they were governed. 

Captain Duchene is a veteran sailor, having sailed 
on the Atlantic steadily for fifteen years, and on other 
waters since his earliest boyhood. Many of our 
passengers have made several voyages with him ; 
they have great faith in his ability, knowing he is 
always at his post. For his bravery and humanity 
in rescuing the crew of a sinking vessel, he was deco- 
rated by the Emperor Napoleon III. with the order 
of the Legion of Honor. 

I was seated on deck the evening after we em- 
barked, when suddenly my attention was turned to a 
stir amidst a group of passengers. It was caused by 
a beautiful butterfly, which had taken a long flight 
from its native shore. It alighted on a bouquet 
held by a lady ; not being suited, it fluttered and flut- 
tered until it made a final rest upon my little son's 
shoulder. After receiving great admiration, being 
examined by each one, Mr. R. returned it to my son. 
We conveyed the trembling insect to our state-room, 
carefully placed it in a box (not air-tight), and daily 
provided rations of sugar, lettuce, parsley, and water. 
Each day the butterfly became more familiar, often 
selecting my ear, nose, or head for a resting-place. 
One bright morning, the port-hole being open, but- 
terfly availed itself of the opportunity to view the 
ocean again, and, like the dove, finding no resting- 



io France and her People. 

place, returned to Noah. Thus our butterfly flew on 
deck, and was again captured by Mr. R. and restored 
to our room. The captain pronounced the occur- 
rence an omen of good luck, a talisman of success. 
Alas, for the frail insect ! The eighth day it drooped 
and died. I have it still, without a mar, and its 
bright coat untarnished by death or time. I prize 
that trifling memento of our voyage, and will ever 
keep it in remembrance of the departed captain and 
other friendships formed on board the Pererie. 

What a soul-inspiring strain of song welcomed us 
morning, noon, and night from those sturdy sons of 
the sea. It was a demonstration that they were 
happy, enjoying life to the full extent of their capa- 
cities. They dressed in uniform, their entire costume 
was navy-blue woollen cloth, with deep collars, 
adorned with an anchor embroidered in each corner; 
round caps of the same hue, of heavier fabric. 

I amused myself on my second day at sea in 
surveying our fellow-companions. We number 
eighty in the first cabin. They are composed of per- 
sons in very different classes of society, none alike. 
We have a great variety of characters ; some morose, 
some loquacious, some affable, some intelligent, some 
selfish, some assuming what they never can attain. 
With such a diversity of character, one certainly can 
find congeniality of nature sufficient to pass a few 
days in social enjoyment. We have among our 



France and her People. 1 1 

number five Roman Catholic priests ; three Sisters 
of Charity — genial, intelligent, warm-hearted women ; 
an interesting family going to India ; also two brides 
and bridegrooms. I think our passengers are 
from many climes, and represent various nationalities. 
For several of my sea-voyage friends I have formed 
a lasting friendship. 

I was usually on deck at six A. M. ; that allowed me 
an hour for walking previous to the summons for a 
cup of tea, coffee, or chocolate, with bread, butter, 
rolls, or toast. At nine o'clock we had breakfast, a 
most bountiful meal, with a great variety of fruit. 
Each passenger was supplied with wine at all the re- 
pasts. We were always on deck until lunch, at twelve 
o'clock, which was served above, if desired. At four 
p. m. the dinner was served, which each day could 
not be surpassed for style, abundance, or the best 
French culinary art. The last Sunday on board it 
was termed the captain's dinner. I could not dis- 
cover any great addition to our bill of fare. It was 
impossible to make improvements. We had delica- 
cies and luxuries in abundance every day. Tea at 
eight o'clock, and another lunch at ten p. m., for those 
who desired to indulge their appetites the sixth time 
in twenty-four hours. The servants were most at- 
tentive and polite, often rendering trifling acts of 
courtesy unlooked for, and never found, except from 
French servants. 



12 France a7id her People. 

I was lamenting that we would see none of those 
waves running mountain high ; the captain said, " a 
little later," and, in reality, they did come. The 
fifth morning out, we rolled so heavily that the pro- 
tective strips were in requisition along the edges of 
the tables, or else every dish, contents and all, would 
have been lodged on the floor. I hastened on deck, 
was forced to cling to the railing, for we swayed like 
the limbs of trees in an autumnal gale. Oh, how 
magnificent the ocean looked in such a frenzied com- 
motion ! Could it really be the same waters, the 
same elements ? Yes ; by the bidding of ^Eolus, his 
breath had caused the transition. The wind howled 
piteously, the spray dashed over us, but with such a 
fairy lightness that we were unharmed. Such sub- 
lime grandeur can never be witnessed, except to 
stand and watch the waves as they roll upward in 
graceful beauty, then burst, sending forth the im- 
mense volume they have engulphed, with their hoary 
heads of foam trickling down to sea-level again, to 
be raised up and then spent like a bubble. Wind 
fair all the passage ; a number of sailing-ships came 
in view, but we left them far behind, struggling with 
a head wind. I did not envy their situation. 

The sea birds, gulls, Mother Carey's chickens, and 
sea swallows hover around our vessel. The wind 
has abated; we are nearing the European coast. 
No one could desire a more beautiful aspect than 



France and her People. 13 

that which greeted me this morning as I ascended 
the stairs. The waters were a clear green, waves 
running high, filled with myriads of dolphins sport- 
ing in the briny deep. They look very singular as 
they become visible near the top of the translucent 
waves. They swim in schools very near the ship. 

Monday morning, September 13. — Every one is 
in fine spirits. All are inquiring, " Where will you 
land ? Brest or Havre ? " We have decided for 
Brest, wishing to pass through Brittany. What a 
lovely day. The heavens are blue above, the ocean 
clear and brilliantly illuminated by the rays of Sol. 
All are impatient to behold the shores of " La belle 
France," not one more eager than I am to behold 
once more that beloved land. I strained my eyes 
for hours, until the good captain said, " You will not 
be gratified until after dinner." 

I was called to claim our luggage, as the hold had 
been opened. Soon the trunks, boxes, etc., were ar- 
ranged for landing. Dinner being announced, I un- 
willingly left the deck. 

Our repast finished, we all hastened to the most 
eligible situations to catch the first glimpse of land. 
I was indescribably happy. My day dream, my 
night dream to be realized : I should in a short time 
behold thy shores again, O France ! The first light- 
house was hailed with joy ; every soul on board ran 
to catch a glimpse of that still distant land. The 



14 France and her People. 

waters had become perfectly smooth ; the sun was 
disappearing behind a crimson cloud, edged with 
orange, with a base of dark purple, emitting such 
rays of mellow light that the shores resembled en- 
chanted ground. 

As all things earthly must end, so came the haven 
of rest ; and gently we glided into Le Geulet, which is 
one mile wide, divided by a rocky island in the cen- 
tre, and reaching far inland. The national emblems 
fluttered in the breeze ; the cannon boomed forth 
our arrival ; the sky-rockets whizzed high in the air, 
surrounded by minor fire-works, all in honor of our 
safe entrance to Brest. 

-We bade adieu to captain, officers, and friends, 
and, accompanied by fifty persons, descended into 
the steam-tug that came alongside the ship. When 
all were on board, the shrill whistle blew ; then they 
made the " welkin ring," as cheer upon cheer was 
given. This was a swift ferry-boat, and it reached 
the quay in a few moments. I gave a lingering look 
at the Pererie as she reposed upon the still waters, 
brilliantly illuminated with various-tinted lights ; and 
felt thankful to the good ship and skilled captain, 
that by the hand of a wise, protecting Providence we 
had safely landed. 

Everything looked strange as we approached the 
city, so different from familiar scenes, except the lan- 
guage, which sounded like sweet music to my ears. 



France and her People. 15 

We immediately entered the Custom House, a 
large, commodious, well-arranged building, with 
sanded floor and cushioned seats. The officials were 
polite ; merely opened our luggage, disturbed noth- 
ing, and detained us only a few moments. 

We called a carriage ; and while waiting for our 
trunks, a small beggar-boy came soliciting alms. I 
had no French coins. He pleaded touchingly for 
" a penny," " a little penny." A penny in French 
currency is ten centimes, and a little penny five cen- 
times. Regretting to refuse such a trivial demand, 
I said, in the kindest manner, I have only American 
money. He quickly replied, " Madam, American 
money is just as good for me." He was well pleased 
with a five-cent piece. Then we had a short conver- 
sation about fishing. He said, " This port abounds 
with a great variety of sea fish, and we furnish the 
ships for many ports." His " good-night " was a 
low bow and a high elevation of his old cap. 

We alighted at an ancient hotel in a clean narrow- 
street, the buildings all being six and eight stories 
high. At the door the obsequious landlady met us, 
attired in a becoming costume, with white cap, gold 
ear-rings, and a smiling countenance. She welcomed 
us to her country with the ease and grace of a 
duchess. An escort of four servants, each carrying 
a wax-candle, stood in the hall, and with their white 



1 6 France and her People. 

caps and white aprons they looked very neat and 
appropriately dressed. 

After mounting the stone stair-case, we hailed the 
soft-cushioned arm-chairs with pleasure. The smooth 
polished floors were so slippery that had we not been 
good sailors we would have fallen. The beds, with 
down coverings, curtains, and the purest linen, looked 
inviting. The mantel-piece was ornamented by a 
handsome time-piece and vases ; the remainder of 
the furniture was antique. 

We were preparing to retire, when a gentle knock 
announced a visitor; I opened the door. There 
stood our hostess, begging a thousand pardons for 
the intrusion ; she wished to inform us that we occu- 
pied the room that had once been His Majesty Louis 
Napoleon's, " my Emperor," she said. We thanked 
her for the information, and soon forgot earth, sea, 
and air in sweet sleep, in which we indulged rather 
late ; the consequence was a hurried breakfast and a 
m hasty departure to the railway depot. 



CHAPTER II. 

Brest — Railways — Morlaix — Flag stations — Fruits — Old castles — 
Rennes — Le Mans — Chartres — Buffets — Versailles — Paris — Hotel 
Mirabeau. 

T) REST is the principal naval fortress of France 
■^ on the ocean ; it has a dock-yard, and is advan- 
tageously situated at the extremity of the department 
of Finistere. The means of communication between 
the town and suburb is kept by a swing iron bridge 
(Pont Imperial), a most ingenious invention. It is 
65 feet above high water mark, and is 347 feet long 
between the piers. It opens in the centre, to allow 
ships of war to pass ; each half turns on a colossal 
granite pier, and moves by machinery. 

We had a view of the picturesque old castle, which 
belonged to the Duke of Brittany. The city con- 
tains about 80,000 inhabitants. I was amused at the 
appearance of the water-bearers and market women. 
Their dress is original and grotesque in the extreme. 
Some of the streets are so narrow that vehicles can- 
not pass each other. I never was in such a clean 
city. The small parks that intersect some portions 
of it add beauty to the general appearance of the 

place ; the ancient trees looked grand and fresh ; one 
2* 17 



1 8 France and her People. 

would imagine it was spring, as they bore no au- 
tumnal hue. 

After a long walk, we reached the depot. I was 
charged two cents for over weight on baggage ; I 
had never been accustomed to such low tariff. The 
depot is large and well adapted to the vast concourse 
of travellers that continually depart from this city. 
Soon we were swiftly plying towards Paris, all in 
fine spirits, having some fellow-voyagers across the 
Atlantic, and no strangers, in our carriage, as these 
vehicles are called in Europe. Each carriage has 
seats for eight persons. It is lined with light drab 
cloth, tufted, velvet carpets, blue silk curtains, and a 
lamp in the centre of the ceiling, which is always 
lighted, having "many tunnels to pass through. 
There is a silk shade for protecting the lamp, which 
moves by a spring. The rails are made of steel, 
and the train runs very smoothly, with no oscilla- 
tion, and very little dust or cinders. We moved at a 
rapid rate. 

The conductor soon announced Morlaix, a flourish- 
ing seaport, romantically situated in a valley wide 
enough only for the tidal river or creek which runs 
up. The rock rises so close behind the houses as to 
give rise to a proverb, " From the garret to the 
garden, as they say at Morlaix." General Moreau 
was born here, killed at Dresden, buried at Bordeaux. 
I may add, he was a favorite general of the Emperor 



France and her People. ig 

Napoleon I. The great attraction of this town is the 
air of antiquity which it retains in some quarters. 
The grotesquely ornamented corner posts, represent- 
ing carved figures of kings' heads, priests, saints, 
monsters and bagpipers, all fill a conspicuous place 
in the town. The custom of the market-people re- 
sembles that of Brest, their brimmed hats, their loose 
trunk hose, their shaggy locks flowing down their 
backs, are all purely of La Bretagne. I was loath to 
leave this spot, but was forced to obey the signal to 
be en route. 

The flag-stations are all attended by women, who 
stand like sentinels holding rigidly the flag. They 
all dress alike — round oil-cloth or fire-men's hats, 
short skirt, round jacket of some bright color, a horn 
swung over the right shoulder. Their houses are 
very tidy, snug abodes built of stone ; and each one 
has a pretty garden rich with many tinted flowers. 

Such fruit ! I can almost taste it yet. Fruit was 
offered at every stopping place. It was so tempting 
we could not resist tasting some. There were 
baskets of yellow pears, juicy and mellow, plums 
that were large and luscious, and beautiful clusters of 
purple and white grapes, all prettily arranged for 
sale. The choicest grapes were five and six cents 
a pound ; pears and plums four cents a pound. Do 
you wonder we indulged our appetites ? 

We passed many old castles, some ivy-grown, 



20 France and her People, 

many of them situated on high eminences, with only 
a turret remaining; others surrounded by a dry 
moat. At St. Brieuc, on the top of a hilly promon- 
tory, stands the ruined Tour de Cesson, built in 1395, 
to defend the entrance to the river at its embouchure. 
In 1598, after the war of the League, it was blown 
up by the order of Henry IV. The ruins remain. 
Thus the entire route to Paris is diversified by castles, 
towers and cathedrals, which I was sorry to leave. 

We rested thirty minutes at Rennes for dinner, 
which was abundant and excellent; no bustle, no 
confusion ; there was time for all the courses, and a 
few moments for a short stroll. This town has been 
modernized since a devastating fire which occurred 
in 1720. It contains 49,231 inhabitants, and has a 
very active lively appearance. 

Le Mans, the birthplace of Henry II., the first of 
the Plantagenet kings of England, is pleasantly 
situated, and a place of some trade. There are 
extensive linen mills and some tanneries here. 

Chartres, a fine city, contains one of the most 
magnificent cathedrals in Europe. The celebrated 
corn-markets, on Saturday, are carried on by wo- 
men of long standing, and remarkable for their 
integrity, and the owners place implicit confidence 
in them. There is an excellent buffet (eating-house) 
at this station ; these surpass all the lunch-rooms of 
any country I was ever in. The main counter is 



France and her People. 



21 



•■'• 



always filled with fancy cakes, confectionery, fruits, 
wine of all kinds, liquors in bottles, from five cents 
up to forty cents. They always have good beef- 
soup, roast beef, chickens, ham, and almost every- 
thing one could enumerate; and so cheap that a 
person might eat and drink without a thought of 
how much money he has in his pocket. 

This country is beautifully diversified by hill and 
dale ; and has smooth wide roads. I often wished 
I was driving beside those pure streams, or winding 
up the precipitous mountain paths to some old castle. 
The moon's silvery light has cast a pensive glow 
upon the landscape ; soon we discovered the castle 
of Versailles. It only occupied a few minutes to 
travel the eleven miles, and we were in Paris. 

Hotel Mirabeau was the house chosen. I awoke 
early to behold the fairest capital and the proudest 
city of the world. Not desiring to peruse the 
geography of the heavens, and being admirably 
situated for that purpose, after breakfast we sought 
and found a lower story at the Hotel du Louvre, on 
the Rue de Rivoli, in front of the Louvre, and near 
the Palais Royal. 



CHAPTER III. 

Carriages — Old Haunts — Sevres — Meudon — Prince Imperial — Young 
Patriot — Fontainebleau 

TTARLY we called a carnage; of these you can 
— ' have a choice either of open or covered, one 
horse or two. I shall speak particularly of the cheap 
hackney vehicles. The price by the hour is two 
francs, or forty cents, by the course thirty cents, and 
every one gives the driver from five to twenty cents, 
pour boire (to drink). The one-horse carriages seat 
two persons, with a seat in front, that can be raised 
or dropped as you may desire. They are very com- 
fortable, cushioned, carpeted, and a printed tariff 
hangs in each one. The drivers are very odd-look- 
ing, some of them comical ; their style of dress is 
uniform, — black shiny hats, green coats, scarlet vests, 
brass buttons, long whips, which they crack con- 
tinually. I soon became accustomed to the din, 
and liked to hear the noise. Their speed is four 
miles per hour. They are polite and honest. I do 
not know the exact number of public carriages there 
are in Paris. We have occupied one numbered 

5568. 

22 



France and her People. 23 

Before starting out for the day, I was desirous of 
finding some old familiar spot, and, from the memo- 
ries of childhood, soon stood within the arcade, 
that was all gay, and dazzling with rare and elegant 
merchandise. There was the toy-shop that had 
been my delight ; a few steps onward the confec- 
tionery, where I had parted with many bright coins. 
Thus, I could have passed the day ; but friends were 
waiting for me, and I hurried away. 

Sevres is situated on the Seine, six miles from 
Paris, and contains the celebrated porcelain manu- 
factory which for a century has been government 
property. The Museum contains specimens from all 
countries of glass, china, and earthenware. It was 
founded by Alexander Brongniart, in 1 800. Stained- 
glass is also manufactured here, and equals that of 
Munich, in Germany. The most beautiful work- 
manship known is the Sevres china ; the decorations 
are the finest paintings, copies mostly from the old 
Italian masters ; the outlines, lights and shadows are 
perfect; some of the pictures are ten feet square. 
The art is only known to a few persons. One 
hundred and eighty were at work to day ; they do 
not receive very lucrative wages. I purchased a 
very handsome head of the Prince Imperial for a 
friend, who upon my leaving America said he would 
prefer his likeness to aught else. It would be a 
pleasure could I describe minutely the vast contents 



24 France and her People. 

of this building ; the entrance and surroundings are 
as attractive as the interior. 

We proceeded to Meudon, an Imperial palace, 
the summer residence of Prince Napoleon. From 
its elevated position a most splendid view of the 
environs is obtained, including towns, gardens, the 
Seine, Fort Mont Valerien, also the gilded dome of 
the Invalides, glistening in the sunbeams like a 
beacon light directing the traveller to the spot by 
the Seine where reposes the mortal remains of the 
great warrior Napoleon, who said, " I desire that my 
ashes repose on the borders of the Seine, in the midst 
of the French people, whom I have loved so well." 

Returning through the Champs Elysees, the coach- 
man attracted our attention to a slight, graceful lad 
on horseback, who rode with perfect ease, and 
was entirely master of his gay steed. The driver 
said, "There is our little Prince." We had the 
pleasure of beholding him ; every moment he was 
returning the many salutations, cap in hand, bowing 
first to the right, then to the left ; as he disappeared 
the air resounded with Vive V Empereur ! The Prince 
is a great favorite ; he has been educated to sympa- 
thise with the afflicted, to assist the indigent, and to 
treat every one with courtesy. 

I chanced to form the acquaintance of a bright 
intelligent lad from St. Cloud, who had often shared 
in the sports of the Prince in the palace grounds. 



France and her People, 25 

The boy told me, " The Prince is very thoughtful for 
others ; we never went during recreation hours to 
play, that he did not regale us with cakes, which we 
enjoyed under the shade of those lofty trees." He 
also said with enthusiasm, " I have a father and three 
soldier brothers ; we would all die for our Prince, or 
for our Emperor, Vive I } Emperetcr." And the young 
patriot would become pale with emotion. I said, 
" My good little fellow, suppose your brothers should 
be killed in war some future day, what would you 
do ? " He instantly replied, " I would seize a gun 
and fill the place of the first one that should fall." 
Poor boy, alas, one balmy morning I met him at 
Versailles, a few months later ; his mother was be- 
side him, in tears. I said, " Good morning, my 
brave lad. What is the matter ? " " Nothing," he re- 
plied ; " it is the anxiety I feel for my brothers. We 
have heard that two of them have been killed at 
Gravelotte." I endeavored to breathe a few words 
of consolation to the weeping mother. Suddenly 
smiling through her tears, she exclaimed, " Thank 
God, there is another son that will be able to fight 
for the little Prince." This is one instance among 
hundreds that I heard. 

A party of friends called at an early hour for us to 
join them in a trip to Fontainebleau. Soon we 
were rapidly advancing towards the desired spot. 
How can I describe the style and beauty of this 



26 France and her People. 

palace and grounds ? What shall I write ? Many 
have written, all admired. I will simply relate my 
impressions, and endeavor to give an idea of its 
vastness and splendor. 

Imagine the pleasure-grounds, that contain 60,000 
acres, and not a foot unimproved ; roads and walks 
traversing it in all directions and in all forms ; 
plains, ravines, hill-sides, deep tangled woods, with 
ivy clinging to trunks and limbs ; a parterre of many 
tinted flowers, in the highest state of cultivation ; 
and you have only a faint idea of what these grounds 
represent. A sudden turn brought us to the cross- 
ing of four roads, where stands an obelisk named 
La Croix du Grand Veneur. It receives its appella- 
tion from a spectral huntsman that appeared to 
Henry IV., a few weeks previous to his assassina- 
tion. Our guide having been a soldier at Solferino, 
and devoid of superstition, gave slight credence to 
the legend. He was an honest, polite man, de- 
voted to his country and the Emperor. 

I never saw a more diversified tract of ground ; 
even the broom, heath and black fir plantations 
are extensive, from which ranges of jagged, bare 
sandstone arise, rendering the scenery picturesque. 
Groves of majestic oak and beech abound, with 
such a dense foliage, that I could not catch a glimpse 
of the blue vault above. I wondered how often 
Louis XIV., Henry IV., and Napoleon had been 



France and her People. 27 

sheltered from sun and rain during a stag hunt on 
the spot where I stood. In imagination I could see 
them all. 

The old hermitage is worthy a glance; age gives 
it respect, having stood since the days of Philippe 
Auguste. Should I describe the eagle's nest and 
many other points of interest, I am fearful my most 
patient reader would become weary. Our long drive 
rendered a call at the Hotel de Londres very neces- 
sary ; the keen air gave us an appetite. In a short 
time we were invited to walk out to breakfast. The 
repast no epicure could condemn. Such excellent 
bread, such delicious wine, such fine-flavored fruits, 
we all declared we had never seen or tasted. Plate 
after plate was removed, always with a pure white 
surface untarnished by foreign substances. 

A loud blast of bugles aroused our faculties. We 
hastened to the door. What met our expectant 
gaze? Only a troop of 2500 light cavalry, called 
Chasseurs a Cheval, passing for their daily exercise. 
The display of horses was a fine, sight. The soldiers 
looked well, all in new equipments. The barracks 
are very extensive ; many troops are stationed here. 
A short walk only across the street, and we stood at 
the palace gate. We visited all the apartments of 
Maria Antoinette, still fresh and elegant. Francis I., 
Louis VII., and Philippe Auguste were the first 
that resided here. This palace has always been be- 



28 France and her People. 

loved by many kings, down to the Emperor Napo- 
leon I., Louis Philippe, and the present Emperor 
Many important historical events occurred within 
these walls that I need not pen, as history records 
them all. The apartments of the Empress Eugenie, 
Emperor, and Prince are magnificently decorated; 
the Gobelins are a great embellishment, and the ceil- 
ings are most beautifully painted; each room is 
draped in a different color. I picked up a flower in 
the Prince's room, which I have preserved with such 
care that, unfortunately, it lies locked up in Paris. 
The theatre, being private, is small, — seats only 300, — 
but very handsomely frescoed; the arm-chairs are 
yellow velvet. I seated myself in that of the Em- 
peror, and deliberately surveyed the artistic taste of 
the building. The side seats are reserved for the 
invited guests of the city of Fontainebleau ; the par- 
quet for the soldiers. One of the corridors has en- 
cased upon the walls the historical events that trans- 
pired within this palace, painted on Sevres china 
plates, which are ranged in rows. They are gems 
of beauty; the effect is novel and curious. This 
passage led to the " Cour du cheval blanc " (the court 
of the white horse), named from the plaster statue 
of Marcus Aurelius at Rome, which Catherine of 
Medicis had placed here ; but it has passed away. 

I stood and gazed upon those horse-shoe shaped 
steps where the Emperor Napoleon I. stood when he 



France and her People, 29 

bade adieu to his old and trusty guard, who had shared 
his toils and fatigues, who had witnessed his glorious 
victories, and who, alas, had lived to see this sad 
day. I know the tears flowed down those sun-burnt 
cheeks, and their brave hearts beat with unspeakable 
emotion, for they knew they would never again be- 
hold their leader. As I gazed and thought, fancy 
seemed a reality. I could see that eagle eye that 
had led them by a glance bathed in the moisture of 
the heart's tenderness, and that farewell look of love, 
honor, and sadness. How it thrilled those veterans' 
souls. Quickly they thought of Africa's burning 
sands, of the icy Russian campaign, of their glorious 
entry into Berlin, of Marengo, Jena, Austerlitz, all, 
all passed away. Napoleon turned, walked up the 
stairs, then disappeared from the gaze of that loved 
guard. I fain would have lingered upon those steps, 
but a familiar voice aroused me by saying, " Do 
come to the garden. I cannot conceive why you 
are so charmed with those old stone steps." 

An old woman is snugly located under a shed 
near " The Fountain of beautiful Water." She sells 
coarse brown bread to amuse visitors in feeding the 
thousands of carp that occupy these ponds. The 
fish come up in vast numbers, leaping, plunging, and 
fighting for the bread. She said the eldest were six 
hundred years old, and of course she should know. 

I asked the venerable old lady if I gave her a gold 
3* 



30 France and her People. 

piece would she allow me the privilege of taking a 
few. I shocked her. With great gravity she said, 
" You do not know what you ask ; we never catch 
one except for our Emperor's table." 

Fontainebleau contains 23,000 inhabitants, is regu- 
larly laid out, contains many antique buildings, and 
is situated thirty-seven miles from Paris, in the midst 
of a fertile, highly cultivated section. The railway 
to Lyons passes through this city. 

We all enjoyed the trip, and will ever remember it 
as one of the most delightful days spent among the 
interesting scenes of La belle France. 




CHAPTER IV. 

Prince Imperial — All Saints Day — Funeral at the Madeleine — Pere 
Lachaise — Tomb of Abelard and Heloise — Column of Venddme 
— Queen Hortense and her son. 

A /T Y introduction to the Prince Imperial at the 
^ palace of St. Cloud was most pleasing. After 

the first formalities he entered socially into conversa- 
tion. We were charmed with his manners ; such grace 
and simple elegance are rarely to be found. He is tall 
and fair ; eyes blue and expressive ; his intellectual 
faculties are well developed by a high polished brow, 
unsullied by care. Would that it might so remain. 
He is a remarkable linguist. He understands four 
languages, and speaks English perfectly. After sa- 
luting us, he impressed a kiss upon his father's cheek, 
then gracefully glided from the saloon. He exhibits 
no pride, no pretensions that are so usual and so dis- 
gusting in lads of his age whose fathers have had 
the fortune to accumulate a few thousands. He has 
been admirably tutored. Among other accomplish- 
ments, he has learned the printing business. The 
Prince and Doctor Conneau's young son (the con- 
stant companion and friend of the Prince) commenced 
and successfully carried out the plan of publishing a 

3i 



32 France and her People. 

newspaper in the palace of the Tuileries. The Em- 
peror, for causes unknown to the public, would not 
consent to its publicity. The Prince can often be 
seen walking on the Rue de Rivoli. No person 
would molest him ; he is a great favorite, and is 
generally spoken of as " our little Prince." 

All Saints Day is rigidly observed in Paris by re- 
ligious ceremonies in the forenoon, the afternoon and 
evening being a holiday. Although early when we 
entered the church of Saint Augustine, situated on 
the Boulevard Malesherbes, a modern church that 
stands in a conspicuous position, and is a great orna- 
ment to that section, the sight on entering was su- 
perb ; thousands of wax-candles were burning ; the 
deep-toned organ was pouring forth soul-inspiring 
chants. The immense congregation, without reserve, 
dropped upon their knees ; in a moment all were in 
devout prayer. As I gazed upon that kneeling mul- 
titude, the thoughts of Christian equality were forci- 
bly illustrated. No locked pews, no paupers' seats. 
All in this country are welcome, and the sanctuaries 
are as free to all classes as the air we inhale. Not 
far from us a young countess was kneeling upon a 
low rush-bottomed chair. Beside her none other 
than her servant maid, simply dressed in black gown, 
white cap, and apron ; both pouring forth their peti- 
tions to the throne of God. As we were leaving, a 
group of the Imperial Guard attracted our attention. 



France and her People. %$ 

They had scarcely passed the portals ; but there they 
were, in such devout prayer that they neither moved 
nor raised their eyes. I sighed for such devotion in 
all lands. I have never seen a worshipper in a ca- 
thedral or church on the continent looking about or 
watching other persons. It struck me very forcibly, 
and it would be worthy of imitation elsewhere. 
Wishing to see various churches, we drove to the 
Madeleine, St. Thomas, St. Sulpice, Dame de Lo- 
rette, and St. Trinity. The illuminations were the 
same in all. After church, this being the national 
day for decorating the graves of the loved departed, 
thousands flocked to the cemeteries to deposit their 
annual floral tokens of loving remembrance. 

There was to be a funeral at the Madeleine ; the 
outside front was hung with black cloth, having the 
initial of the surname of the deceased embroidered 
with silver in the centre, with a border of silver leaves 
around the edge. The inside of all the Roman 
Catholic churches for every interment is draped in 
black. A funeral procession in Paris is a doleful 
sight. Not a color but black — carriages, harness, 
horses, and drivers in the deepest mourning. The 
drivers wear three-cornered hats, knee breeches, black 
stockings, and large black buckles on their shoes. 
The beadle dresses in black, ornamented with silver, 
as do also the pall-bearers. The hearses are similar 
to those used in other countries. Great respect is 



34 France and her People. 

shown to the dead. Every vehicle stops until the 
cortege passes, every man and boy raises his hat or 
cap with marked reverence. The remains of a beg- 
gar borne through the streets of Paris receive the 
same attention as the highest officer of state. This 
custom I admire. I have often seen, with horror, 
carts, omnibuses, and carriages drive recklessly by 
a hearse ; but this was not in France. 

Pere Lachaise. — This ancient and world-renowned 
city of the dead is situated on an eminence, a mile 
from the Place de la Bastille, in the northeastern ex- 
tremity of Paris. No guide was required to point 
out our proximity to the spot : the numerous stone- 
cutters' workshops, filled with monuments of every 
variety and device that could adorn a grave, admon- 
ished us that we were in the vicinity of the dead. 
Women vending flowers and immortelles for decora- 
ting the tombs are everywhere. They come near 
your carriage window, solicit your patronage in such 
plaintive strains, that it seems hard-hearted not to 
purchase. Many booths, containing beautiful wreaths 
and crosses made of black and white beads and 
flowers both natural and artificial, in great abund- 
ance line the road. No pleasure carriages are allowed 
inside the gate. On entering, we proceeded up the 
main wide avenue, and looked until we wearied upon 
scores of marble monuments. We then diverged 
into a winding avenue, rendered lovely by the deep 



France and her People. 35 

shade, and cool by the damp moss-covered mounds 
near a trickling spring. Here we rested a few mo- 
ments ; but not alone, for several gay songsters war- 
bled sweetly their matin lays unconscious of the 
funeral piles. The entrances to the vaults and 
tombs are nearly all covered with flowers. Immor- 
telles of orange, yellow, and white form the principal 
ornaments. Vases of flowers, garlands of roses, 
statuettes, and many emblems of love can also be 
seen through the glass doors. How vividly the 
thrilling deeds of Davoust and Massena came to my 
mind. At Larrey's tomb I paused, and remembered 
that he was the chief surgeon of the French army, 
and styled by Napoleon I., "the most virtuous man 
he knew." A short turn, and we stood by Marshal 
Ney's quiet home. The brave, dauntless soldier 
sleeps in his beloved soil. Talma, the noble and 
honorable actor, the friend of Napoleon L; Mo- 
liere, La Fontaine, Rubini, Gourgand, Count Lava- 
lette, Bellini, De Balzac, — these illustrious men all 
lie beneath the only honor that can be shown to the 
dead, a marble monument. At the tomb of Beranger 
I lingered, — the poet of French songs ; the favorite 
writer of his day. Thus I could enumerate thou- 
sands of honorable sons and daughters of France, 
who rest from their labors within these limits. The 
tomb of Abelard and Heloise every one visits. All 
admire, and many shed tears of sorrow, — for what, 



2,6 France and her People. 

may I ask ? Only for an unprincipled man and an 
excessively simple woman. Their history being fa- 
miliar, it requires no recital. Leaves for mementoes 
are culled from every tree and shrub in the vicinity 
of this favorite tomb. All burials in the precincts 
of the Department of the Seine are monopolized by 
a company, who have the sole privilege of conduct- 
ing funerals. The charges are regulated by a tariff, 
varying from 18 to 7148 francs. 

Place Vendome, which contains the famous col- 
umn of Vendome, is situated in a large space, which 
forms an irregular octagon. It was commenced in 
1688 by Mansard on the spot where a monastery 
stood. Louis XIV. intended it to contain the royal 
library, the mint, and hotels of the ambassadors. 
The project was abandoned. A colossal equestrian 
statue of Louis XIV. stood in the centre ; but it was 
destroyed in 1792. In 1806 Napoleon ordered the 
present triumphal column, after the model of Trajan's 
pillar at Rome, in commemoration of the successes 
of the French armies. The shaft is formed of 276 
plates of metal derived from 1200 pieces of cannon 
taken from the Prussians and Austrians, weighing 
more than 120 tons. The height of the column is 
135 feet, and 12 feet in diameter. The pedestal is 
22 feet high and 16 feet wide. It was surmounted 
by a statue of Napoleon I. as Emperor. 

In 1 8 14 this statue was melted down, to aid in 



France and Jier People. 37 

forming the statue of Henry IV., now on the Pont 
Neuf (new bridge). During the reign of Louis 
Philippe a statue, representing the Emperor in his 
familiar great coat and cocked hat, was cast from 
Algerian cannon, and erected and placed at the top 
of this elegant column during the present Emperor's 
reign. The plates of which this column is formed 
are arranged in a spiral form, and richly ornamented 
with bas-relief, representing the principal events that 
signalized the campaign of 1805 up to the battle of 
Austerlitz. The pedestal is square. It is surrounded 
by a high iron railing, which is continually hung with 
wreaths of immortelles, many of them tied with red, 
white and blue streamers. A guard is ever keep- 
ing watch around this victorious shrine. A dark 
narrow staircase of 176 stairs leads to the top, from 
which a splendid view can be obtained. 

The surrounding buildings are mostly public 
offices. In one of those mansions Queen Hortense 
resided, on her return from Italy with her little son 
Louis, when Louis XVIII. , fearing her name and ap- 
pearance might cause his throne to totter, compelled 
her to leave France. 
4 



CHAPTER V. 

Pont Neuf — St. Cloud — Pont de l'Alma — Circus of the Empress — 
Zouaves — Palace of Luxembourg — Ney's monument — Wine and 
Brandy — Real and imitation jewels. 

TDONT NEUF (new bridge) was commenced in 
■*■ 1578. Owing to civil troubles it was not com- 
pleted until 1604. It is 1880 feet in length and 86 
feet wide. Connecting the island of the city with 
the two banks of the Seine, it has more travel than 
any other bridge in Paris. In former years shops 
lined both sides of this thoroughfare. The ground 
on which the centre of the bridge rests was once a 
separate island, called LTle des Vaches (cow island). 
Here, in 1304, Jacques Morlay, a grand master of 
the Templars, was publicly burnt to death. The 
statue of Henry IV., which now occupies the space 
between the two bridges, was placed here in 18 18, 
and replaces the one erected by his widow Marie de 
Medicis, which was destroyed in 1783. 

On a bright warm morning we wended our way 
to St. Cloud. After a pleasant ride of an hour we 
came in sight of the great autumnal Fete, or Fair, 
which is held for two weeks in all the towns of 
France. Upon each side of a wide avenue, sheltered 
38 



France and her People. 39 

by forest trees two miles long, booths or stalls were 
erected; each trade that would be requisite at a 
fair was represented. The china, glass, fancy and 
stationery display was extensive ; the toys, confec- 
tionery, and eating stands contained a complete and 
vast assortment of gew-gaws and every article a per- 
son could desire. Such a gay concourse of people I 
never beheld. Dancing boys and monkeys, birds 
and rabbits, mice and poodles, all contributed their 
aid to the fete. A drummer-girl drew a large 
crowd. Games of chance, shooting galleries of every 
description, swings, rocking horses, fortune tellers, 
singing girls, and an endless variety of games. The 
military bands from the barracks a few rods distant 
discoursed sweet airs, which floated with the breeze, 
and fell with soft cadence upon the ear. A sudden 
change appeared among the people, a burst of ap- 
plause, then a rush to the main entrance, then such a 
shouting as I never heard rent the air, and I knew 
the cause: "Vive I Empereur ! Vive VEmpereur!" 
He was in their midst, cordially returning their 
salutations. He walked the length of the avenue 
bowing continually. They were satisfied ; their Em- 
peror had noticed them by his presence. He always 
makes them two or three visits during the fete, as 
does also the Empress and the Prince Imperial. 

The Pont de lAlma is a modern bridge, erected in 
1856 to commemorate the Crimean campaign. It is 



40 France and her People. 

a splendid piece of workmanship ; the extremities are 
four statues, representing different soldiers, — one a 
Zouave, one an artilleryman, one a soldier of the line, 
and one a chasseur. 

In the evening, friends we could not refuse called 
for us to accompany them to the Circus of the Em- 
press, so named. It is situated on the Champs 
Elysees, a large circular building, with an ample 
arena. Here, as elsewhere, the visitor's comfort is 
studied ; women acting as ushers bring you the pro- 
grammes, a foot-stool, a fan, and during the evening 
pass baskets of cakes, candies, and fruits. The per- 
formances consisted of equestrian feats, ponies, poo- 
dles, and a clown, who was an American. The music 
was the charm for me. I was also much pleased and 
interested in the spectacle of five hundred Algerian 
Zouaves; their ebony faces were bright and shining; 
their costume fanciful, — white turbans, with a large 
colored tassel hanging from the back of their heads, 
white coats, loose red pantaloons falling below the 
knees. Some wore yellow, others red sashes, and 
all had the addition of a bowie-knife in their belts. 
You cannot conceive of a more fierce, frightful look- 
ing body of men. 

The Palace of Luxembourg was erected by the 
order of Marie de Medicis, in 1615, by Desbrosses, 
and decorated elaborately. Since that epoch it has 
experienced many changes. Until the revolution, in 



France and her People. 41 

1791, it was a princely residence; for a time it was 
converted into a prison for distinguished persons. 
Hebert, Danton, David, the artist, Robespierre, Jose- 
phine Beauharnais, and others were temporarily con- 
fined here. We entered by the main gallery into the 
court-yard, then ascended the magnificent staircase 
that leads into an ante-chamber, where visitors await 
the guide. This room is adorned with bronze statues 
of Greeks and Romans ; among the number is Cicero, 
Socrates, Catiline, and others. First we visited the 
Salle du Trone. The walls are covered by a series 
of paintings representing events in the life of Napo- 
leon I. This saloon contains the throne of the Em- 
peror Napoleon I. in perfect preservation, also his 
scarlet velvet cloak and his chair. The guide said, 
" Here King Joseph sat when he presided over the 
Senate the hundred days." The Senate Chamber is 
surrounded by a gallery that contains the busts of 
the senators of the First Empire. The woodwork is 
most beautifully carved ; it is very compact, and the 
ceiling is frescoed. We then proceeded to the Cabi- 
net of the Emperor, which contains a number of 
paintings, including his Nuptials, and his Entrance 
into Paris from St. Cloud. By descending a few 
steps, we were ushered into the apartments of Queen 
Marie de Medicis. The decorations of the sleeping 
apartment were partially torn down during the revo- 
lution; part of them were found hid in a garret, and 
4* 



42 France and her People. 

Louis XVIII. had them restored in 1 8 17 to their 
former elegance. The decorations consist of ara- 
besques on a gold ground, and are executed with 
great taste. The paintings are by Rubens. The 
Library of the Senate is a handsome gallery, contain- 
ing 40,000 volumes. The chapel belonging to this 
palace is small, but very artistic ; the altar is chaste. 
I admired the perfect simplicity of the chancel and 
pulpit ; and was astonished when informed that all 
the dignitaries were married within this chapel. 

Marshal Ney has had a most beautiful statue 
erected to his memory on the spot where he was 
shot (Dec. 7th, 18 1 5). The figure presents a com- 
manding attitude; but the features might be im- 
proved. 

A stranger is perfectly secure from all fraud in 
purchasing gems and jewelry. The genuine is al- 
ways kept in separate stores, the imitation the same ; 
the sign always indicates the quality for sale. This 
careful regulation has been established by law for 
the protection of persons unacquainted with gems, 
gold or silver. In all the dry-goods shops the same 
principle is enacted ; you will never have cotton lace 
forced upon you for thread, or cotton handkerchiefs 
for pure linen, or silks and ribbons that are half cot- 
ton for the genuine article. 

As regards brandies, wines, and all liquors, they 
are purer, cheaper, and less adulterated than in any 



France and her People. 43 

other country. Good claret can be purchased from 
fifteen cents to two francs (forty cents) a bottle ; the 
best pale sherry for four francs (eighty cents), that is, 
a quart bottle. The brandy and wine market adjoins 
the Zoological Garden on the bank of the Seine ; it 
extends half a mile. I saw half a million of casks 
lying there in bond, the duty being paid when they 
are removed. The brandy is all tested ; that which 
is not proof is condemned, and is emptied into the 
river. On the bank hundreds of men and boys col- 
lect ; there they watch impatiently in boats for the 
flow of the liquor that was considered unfit for use ; 
they catch it in all manner and kinds of cooking 
utensils, — in buckets, kegs, pans, pots, and even the 
coffee-pot is brought forth. It is an abundant har- 
vest for them ; they bottle it, and of course sell it to 
those who cannot afford to purchase a superior arti- 
cle. Many gain a livelihood by this traffic. 




CHAPTER VI. 

Bois de Boulogne — Omnibus — Hotel Cluny — Restaurants — Colonel's 
wife — Garden of the Tuileries — Orleans chapel at Neuilly — Statue 
of Napoleon I. 

'HPHE Bois de Boulogne I cannot fully describe 
"*" after one visit. It would be impossible to con- 
vey any idea of its broad, continuous avenues, its 
cascades, its lakes, its Swiss cottages, its shady walks, 
its museum, its race-course, its cafes, its zoological 
garden, its grand old woods, its many-formed flower- 
beds, its boats of every variety, from the gondola to 
the Indian canoe. There they all repose on those 
quiet waters, decked with flags and streamers, await- 
ing a party desirous of an aquatic excursion to yon- 
der romantic retreat, where they can regale them- 
selves with all the choice delicacies of the season. 
The drive around the lake is the most fashionable. 
There you are compelled to move in procession. 
You never weary, the scene being diversified at each 
step. Such a countless cavalcade of costly equipa- 
ges can nowhere else be witnessed. We encountered 
several rich Americans driving four-in-hand in great 

style. Would that I could portray that living scene 
44 



France and her People. 45 

to my readers with the vividness of nature, and 
adorned with all her beauties. I fain would have 
lingered until day dwindled into the sombre moon- 
light, but wishing to behold the exciting ride from 
the " Bois " to the Arc de Triomphe by day, we left 
this enchanting spot. After passing the gates, you 
imagine you are going at a brisk gait until you per- 
ceive your horses are passed by scores of liveried 
coachmen and footmen covered with lace and gold, 
who are vainly endeavoring to hold in their prancing 
steeds ; then a hackney passes you, with father, mother, 
and rosy children, all exulting that you ride in their 
rear ; then a dozen equestrians pass like a shadow so 
swiftly; then the gorgeous turnout of the British 
ambassador, that equals any establishment in Paris. 
Thus you are passed, until the Place de la Concorde 
is reached. There the Champs Elysees terminates, 
and the vehicles diverge in all directions. Each day 
in the year, summer and winter, this avenue is a con- 
tinued moving panorama, ever changing, and very 
frequently enlivened by martial music, along which 
the regiments daily parade for exercise. 

To a stranger the urbanity of all officials is very 
pleasing. They are complacent, and never in such 
a hurry as to answer rudely or curtly the desired 
information. 

On every hack-stand there is a chief who aids you 
in all necessary arrangements, — opens the door, 



46 France and her People. 

assists you to mount, gives your order to the coach- 
man, closes the door with a low bow ; and you drive 
off feeling satisfied with every one. 

The omnibus plan is perfect. They never allow 
more than the limited number to enter, not even a 
child over four years, unless there is a vacancy. 
There is a division between each seat. They ac- 
commodate fourteen inside and eighteen outside. 
No children or cripples allowed on top. Each 
omnibus has a conductor, who collects the fare 
after starting from the station. If you wish to take 
another line for some other section, you have only 
to ask him for a " correspondence," that is the term ; 
he gives you a ticket that secures a free ride on the 
next line. The fare is six cents inside and three 
outside. At each omnibus station you ask for a 
ticket, indicating the route you desire ; they give you 
a number, then you must watch until your line comes 
up. The conductor then commences calling from 
the number he left off at the previous trip. Numbers 
run from one to one hundred. No one can enter 
until his or her number is called, which number is 
given up to the conductor. By this method all con- 
fusion is avoided. I have seen twenty persons rush 
for a seat when perhaps there would not be more 
than one or two vacancies ; a slight disappointment 
was all that followed ; nothing to do except wait for 
the next omnibus; — they run every few minutes. 



France and her People. 47 

When filled they put out a sign " complete ; " this 
avoids the necessity of unnecessary stops. 

Hotel Cluny, that famous old palace, is situated in 
the Rue des Mathurins. The founder is believed to 
be the Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus, who 
dwelt in Gaul from 292 to 306. The Franconian 
monarchs also resided here. 

At the close of the fifteenth century the abbots 
of the wealthy Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, who had 
vast possessions in Paris, but no residence, erected 
this present Palace of Cluny on the site of the ancient 
Roman palace. Later it passed into the hands of a 
troupe of comedians, who gained great celebrity. It 
was said they could draw a larger audience than any 
of the four best preachers of Paris. In 15 15, soon 
after its completion, it was occupied by Mary, sister 
of Henry VIII. of England, and widow of Louis 
XII. Her rooms are still styled "the rooms of the 
white queen," it being then the custom of the queens 
of France to wear white mourning. 

It then passed into that monster Marat's hands. 
In 1833 the Hotel Cluny was purchased by M. D. 
Sommerard, an enthusiastic collector of mediaeval 
curiosities. We visited the apartments of Francis I. ; 
his furniture, tapestry, china, and glassware all pre- 
served. Here James V. of Scotland celebrated his 
nuptials with Madeleine, daughter of Francis I. 

This collection contains over three thousand spe- 



48 France and her People. 

cimens, belonging alone to the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries. It comprises weapons, pictures, 
missals, stained glass, carved ivory, ecclesiastical 
decorations and vestments. The greatest curiosity 
is the golden altar, given to the cathedral of Basle 
by Henry II. The crown of Reces Mathus, king of 
the Goths, in 649, is a wonderful model of antique 
work ; the style is massive. The cap of Charles V. 
is another relic ; also a chess-board of rock-crystal. 
Nothing manufactured at the present epoch is hand- 
somer. 

The Palace Chapel is elaborately decorated. It 
has been subverted into many uses. During the 
revolution it served as an assembly hall, subsequently 
for e dissecting room, and finally for a printing office. 
The lighting of the sculpture of this old palace must 
be admired — such graceful outlines and well-rounded 
corners. The stained glass is remarkably thin, and 
colors brilliant. 

The cariages are ancient, very cumbrous, one be- 
longing to Louis XVIII. very elegant, covered with 
massive plate, one of Henry VIII. as fresh as if just 
from the shop. The sleighs, saddles, and harnesses all 
in fine preservation. I must not omit the Gobelins 
tapestry of the Flemish school, wrought in the fif- 
teenth century, and still well preserved, firm, and 
strong enough to last another centuiy. 

A few steps, and we found ourselves in the court- 



France and her People. 49 

yard. This we traversed and entered the garden, 
which contains many interesting mediaeval achitec- 
tural fragments, many of them taken from demolished 
edifices. It has charms to the lover of antiquities. 
The ivy-clad garden was filled with joyous children, 
sporting amidst the broken Roman columns and 
statues in ruins. These scenes have a mournful 
tendency, always awakening the dormant thoughts 
that we are passing away. 

Our polite guide would receive no fee, and said, 
"That was forbidden," as with his green cap and 
ever prominent letter N he stood bowing as we 
turned down the Boulevard. 

Advancing we came to one of those first-class res- 
taurants that are scattered from one part of Paris to 
the other. Nowhere are they missed ; the windows 
decked with fruit and flowers make it a temptation 
to enter. The moment you are seated the waiters 
come, so attentive that your very thoughts are antici- 
pated. They bring a stool, a newspaper, a fan, then 
those delicious little loaves of bread and fresh Nor- 
mandy butter, radishes, and sardines, only to keep 
you from wearying until your order is prepared. 

We lingered long at our repast ; during the time 
a drenching rain almost deluged the streets. We 
called a carriage, and soon reached our hotel, only 
to wish the sky would clear, that we could start 
again. There are no moments to be lost in Paris; 



50 France and her People. 

every hour unoccupied in sight-seeing is a pang of 
sadness afterwards on thinking what you might have 
seen. 

We arose early, refreshed and ready for another 
day of interesting sights. A call prevented our 
leaving. We stood on the balcony admiring the 
military parade, when our friend said, " Do you ob- 
serve that lady in black near the archway that leads 
into the Tuileries?" I said, "Yes. Is there any- 
thing remarkable about her?" " Nothing," he said, 
shrugging his shoulders, " except she was the wife 
of a colonel in the army ; he was killed in Egypt. 
For several years she endeavored by many means to 
have a letter reach his Majesty, but could not suc- 
ceed. In the meantime, being extremely poor, she 
had to live scantily, scarcely earning her sustenance. 
We met ; she related her sad story. I said, ' My 
good lady, write your letter, it will reach headquar- 
ters ; confide in me.' She thanked me ; sent me the 
letter. I entrusted it to a private servant of 'his 
Majesty, who promised to simply lay it on his pri- 
vate table in his dressing-room. It passed through 
the hands neither of dukes nor secretaries. I had 
not thought of the circumstance for several days ; at 
the expiration of a week, the servant announced 

Madam . She raised her veil, and before me 

stood my poor widow. Did I say poor ? Not then ; 
she was the happiest, richest woman I ever saw. 



France and her People. 51 

With tears of joy coursing down those pallid cheeks, 
she exultingly exclaimed, ' I have it ! I have it ! ' 
She thrust unceremoniously a letter into my hands 
from the Emperor, containing an annuity of six hun- 
dred francs a year during her life. It was not a large 
sum, but all she required." 

The gentleman said that is why so many letters 
receive no answers ; they never fall into our kind 
Emperor's hands. I was grateful for this correct 
anecdote; and we finished the day by a stroll in the 
garden of the Tuileries, which contains sixty-seven 
acres. It is bounded on the north by the Rue de 
Rivoli, on the south by the Seine, on the west by the 
Place de la Concorde, on the east by the palace of 
the Tuileries. 

On a warm sunny day the most attractive rendez- 
vous is the horse-chestnut grove, the sun's rays 
feebly penetrating the dense foliage. This is the 
loved retreat of myriads of nurses in their white caps 
and aprons, being the personification of contentment, 
while their youthful charges play hide and seek, ball, 
graces, jump the rope, or trundle their hoops, never 
abating their sport for an instant, until the vendor 
of les plaisirs makes her appearance with her cakes, 
so frail and brittle they arc rightly named " the 
pleasures." They surround her, all eager for the 
expected dainty. She blesses them, praises them, 
admires their dress, compliments them on their good 



52 France and her People, 

behavior, and never leaves until those old square 
pockets in her apron are well filled with dimes and 
cents. 

Tuileries signifies a tile-field, or properly, a tile- 
kiln. These fields were converted into gardens in 
1665, according to the directions and taste of Louis 
XIV. The flower-beds are bordered with ivy a foot 
wide, the dark-green leaves forming a barrier of de- 
fence to the rows of varied-tinted flowers in, full 
bloom. The dahlias by cultivation are large and 
brilliant. 

I often wonder why no person ever makes a foot- 
print on those public gardens, why no one ever 
plucks an orange from those trees, whose branches 
hang so full and low with the weight of the golden 
fruit. In early spring they are transported from the 
orangery in large square boxes, and placed on both 
sides of the garden walks near the outside railing. 

Thousands pass here every day ; still not a bud or 
leaf is ever injured. It is the same in all public 
grounds. No other nation entertains such high 
obedience to law ; the French people almost venerate 
the beautiful in nature and art ; and thus it is that 
nothing is disturbed. A few weeks sufficed to give 
me the great secret of this perfect behavior. 

A Lascom and a Diana in bronze ornament these 
grounds ; and on both sides of the avenue leading to 
the grand entrance may be seen bronze figures of 



France and her People. 53 

the Sicilian Knife-grinder, and Venus seated on a 
tortoise. 

Three circular basins with fountains, whose waters 
abound with gold fish, is a loved nucleus, where the 
little ones congregate and fearlessly sail their tiny 
crafts, never encountering a shipwreck. 

The band of the Gendarmerie of the Garde play 
every afternoon, enlivening the scene. There is a 
wide terrace on the south side, a favorite promenade 
of the Emperor, who almost daily can be seen en- 
joying the pure air and graciously saluting the 
passers-by. 

The upper gate is guarded by the Zouaves or 
Nubians — grotesque in their dress and savage in 
their mien. 

The gate nearest the palace is guarded by the 
Imperial Guard. It is always open to the public. 
The school children in the vicinity here spend their 
noon recreation, accompanied by their teachers, who 
join in their sports with the buoyancy of happy 
childhood. 

Another balmy morning, so peculiar to this climate, 
prompted us to call a carriage early. We drove 
through the Champs Elysees to the Arc de Tri- 
omphe, then proceeded to Neuilly ; there visited the 
Orleans Chapel, which is occupied by an old servant 
who belonged to Louis Philippe's household. The 
Emperor allows him to remain at this consecrated 
5* 



54 France and her People. 

shrine that was erected in memory of the Duke 
d'Orleans, the eldest son of Louis Philippe. 

When riding, his horses ran away ; the Prince was 
killed in jumping out. He was carried into the 
house that stood on the present site, where after 
four hours of agony he breathed his last. An elegant 
Byzantine chapel has been erected on the spot, which 
is dedicated to St. Ferdinand, and is in the form of a 
Greek cross. It contains a monumental cenotaph, 
the effigy of the Prince in his uniform reclining on a 
bed. Two pedestals on either side are surmounted 
by angels, one in prayer, the other offering up the 
tears of the survivors to heaven. This exquisite 
sculpture, displaying rare beauty and refined senti- 
ment, was one of the last works of his sister the 
Princess Marie d'Orleans. 

A large oil painting hangs back of the altar, por- 
traying the accident, with all the members of his 
family and the attendants represented. The decora- 
tions are of black velvet, with silver trimmings. The 
painted windows representing saints are from Sevres, 
from the designs of Ingres, now in the Museum of 
the palace of Luxembourg. 

The yard presents a mournful appearance, with its 
stately pine, fir, and evergreen shrubs. The bronze 
statue of Napoleon I. stands in an open space on the 
road to Rueil. Its base is a high granite pedestal ; 
the statue is visible a great distance, and in many 



France and her People. 55 

directions. A number of roads diverge from this 
point. The statue is surrounded by low stone posts, 
with a massive chain passing through them ; it is 
illuminated every night by four fine lamps. 

One seldom enters an inn, country-house, or cot- 
tage that Napoleon I. is not represented by either a 
wooden or plaster image, or, if nothing more, on the 
good man's snuff-box, or the dame's fire-board, or in 
some picture or print, — it matters not by what artist 
or school, if it is only the hero of Marengo. 

His memory is cherished from the cradle to the 
grave, and generations still unborn will be as familiar 
with the deeds of that idolized warrior as were the 
old Guard. 

I was amused in the fruit-market at Versailles by 
an encounter with a feeble old lady, who came tot- 
tering towards me, very poorly clad, her feet almost 
bare ; she had an expressive intelligent countenance. 
I wished her good morning. She remarked : " I am 
poor now, lady. What difference does it make to 
me ? I have the pleasure of knowing my grand- 
father was a soldier, killed fighting those hated Prus- 
sians ; my father was a soldier for Napoleon ; and 
if the Prussians come here I will take the old rusty 
gun and shoot at least two." I replied, " Bravo ! 
Come with me, my brave old friend, you shall have 
a thick pair of strong shoes to stand in the ranks." 

I trust they will not invade France for many 



56 



France and her People. 



weeks. I have often thought of that feeble woman. 
I saw her frequently after our first meeting. She came 
and offered her services to assist me in sewing for 
the wounded soldiers. I thought her dauntless spirit 
was enough ; her hands need not work. The day 
before I left Versailles I bade her a long good-bye. 4 







CHAPTER VII. 

A short trip — Dijon — Hotel — Shops — Churches — Park — Lunatic 
Asylum — Macon-— Bourg — Culoz — Journey to Geneva. 

A BRIGHT morning welcomed us for our pleasure 
*- trip. A hurried breakfast, and a rapid drive to 
the depot. Here we met our friends that were to 
be our compagnons de voyage. We fortunately se- 
cured one of those delightful railway carriages for 
exclusive occupation, with none but kindred spirits 
to spend the day. The rural villages and gaily 
decked gardens were passed ere we could enjoy a 
glimpse of their modest beauties. The flower-adorned 
windows and doors of the most humble cot speak 
volumes for the poor inmates ; a flower, let it be 
ever so tiny, cultivated by a coarse, toiled, callous 
hand, indicates a refined taste. A love of flowers is 
a nationality ; the humblest home, if nothing more, 
could boast of a fragrant pot of mingonettc or a 
bouquet of bright blossoms. 

At Fontainebleau we caught only a hasty glance 
of the old palace. The road crosses the park; the 
cool air was redolent with perfume. 

At Changis we passed a fine viaduct of thirty 

57 



58 France and her People. 

arches, and sixty-six feet high. The vineyards, 
loaded with their masses of luxurious fruit, look 
most tempting to the thirsty travellers. The farms 
are tilled with extreme tidiness ; not a stone, stick, 
or any incumbrance in sight ; no unsightly fences to 
mar the picturesque views or detract from the beau- 
ties of the romantic country. The land is culti- 
vated in narrow portions, — here a strip of buck- 
wheat, white with many blossoms, there a strip of 
wheat ; and thus all the different grains and vegeta- 
bles are alternately blended. The vineyards form 
a striking contrast as we advance ; they are raised 
upon the hill-sides. 

At Thomery grows in rich profusion the Chas- 
selas grapes, called the Fontainebleau ; they are 
trained upon all the walls and sides of the houses. 
From five to six thousand baskets are daily sent 
down the Seine to Paris during the season. Moret 
is a walled town, with an old castle, to behold 
merely the outlines of which, and then to be dashed 
away, was only an aggravation. 

Montereau, a town of 6748 inhabitants, is pleas- 
antly situated at the junction of the Seine and 
Yonne. The waters are a pure blue, and are 
crossed by bridges; the one that crosses the 
Seine was the spot where Jean San Peur, duke of 
Burgundy, was killed by the order of the Dauphin, 
afterwards Charles VII., in 14 19. We halted at this 



France and her People. 59 

town of historical interest. The landscape here is of 
surpassing beauty. Alison has forcibly impressed 
this point upon travellers when he says, " Those who 
approach Montereau from the Paris direction invo- 
luntarily halt on the summit of the heights of Sur- 
ville, which overhang the town on the west, to gaze 
on the lovely scene which lies spread out, like a map, 
beneath his feet ; he would do well to remember that 
there, beside the little cross, adjacent to the chateau, 
stood Napoleon during the last and not the least of 
his many victories, on February 18th, 18 14. On the 
evening of the 17th, the French troops assembled in 
imposing masses on these heights (which they had 
only gained after a severe conflict), and which com- 
manded the bridge and town beneath. The artillery 
of the Guard was placed on either side of the road near 
the cross, and the Emperor took his station in person 
amidst the guns to direct their fire, for the enemy 
still held the road. Such was his eagerness to anni- 
hilate the dense masses of the enemy crowding over 
the bridge, that he himself, resuming his old occupa- 
tion of gunner, with his own hand, as at Toulon, 
levelled and pointed a cannon upon them." The 
enemy had barely time to blow up the bridge over 
the Yonne, which checked the pursuit in the direc- 
tion of Montereau. 

The valley of the Yonne is fertile. Pont-sur- 
Yonne is built upon the green river banks, that are 



60 France mid her People. 

bordered with the tall poplar, and drooping willow. 
We are indeed in a land of vineyards. Sens 
was pointed out to us in the distance. Thomas & 
Becket fled to this quiet town from the wrath of 
Henry II. The church and altar remain the same 
as when Becket performed his devotions in 1194. 
The cathedral has two of the largest bells in 
France ; one weighs sixteen and a half tons. Joigny, 
on the Yonne, which has a quay running on both 
sides of the town, closed in by iron gates, presents 
the same quaint appearance as its sister towns ; the 
buildings are of grey stone, and tile roofs edged with 
white; all very clean. A noble old castle, and 
several fine churches make a lasting impression of 
this ancient place. There is not a town or village 
that has not some interesting associations or legend 
connected with its foundation and history. We are 
hastening onward to enjoy the pleasure of another 
rest. Tonnerre is situated on the Armangon, and 
is noted for a monument erected to the minister 
Louvois in 1691. The church of St. Pierre stands 
upon an eminence overlooking the town; it com- 
mands an extensive prospect. The streets are 
adorned by rows of lime-trees, affording such a deep 
inviting shade, that I fain would have remained and 
allowed the train to depart. A lovely fountain at 
the foot of the hill, called La Fontaine Fosse 
Dionne, was another charm; its source is so pow- 



France and her People. 61 

erful that in a short distance it is capable of turning 
a mill. Here we obtained dinner, — not served in 
haste, and void of all confusion, having time allowed 
for rest and the necessary mastication of food. At 
each point the scenery becomes more interesting ; 
the distant mountains are becoming visible. 

Toulay possesses a chateau in the Renaissance 
style, founded 1559, by Coligny d'Andelot, leader of 
the Protestants, and the chief victim of the St. 
Bartholomew massacre. One of those darksome, 
dreary tunnels, with an almost endless length — thus 
they appear to me ; then soon we stop at Montbard, 
the birthplace, 1707, of Buffon, the celebrated natur- 
alist; it contains his chateau, and a statue erected 
by his fellow townsmen in 1847. 

At Blaisy-Bas we were soon entombed in another 
tunnel of two miles and a quarter in length, which 
cost over ten million of francs, and is 1330 feet 
above the level of the sea. It leads from the basin 
of the Seine into that of the Saone and Rhone. We 
came out of one only to pass into another ; and thus 
they continued, until we reached Dijon. 

At Plombieres the valley is quite narrow, and of 
the most beautiful green; the cream-colored cattle 
grazing in glen and upon hillock, watched by girls 
and boys dressed in gay attire, renders the picture 
one of such loveliness, that at each point I sighed 
for the genius of an artist and a lasting memory to 



62 France and her People. 

imprint those scenes with such a force as that they 
should never be forgotten. The hills are cultivated 
from base to summit. The entire population appear 
engaged in gathering grapes. The women are 
more numerous in the fields than the men. 

Dijon is the ancient capital of Burgundy, now of 
the Department of the Cote d'Or. It is situated at 
the confluence of the Ouche and the Souzon, and 
contains 37,000 inhabitants. After a short walk we 
entered the Hotel Jura, near the railway station, and 
had the satisfaction of finding that this house afforded 
every comfort and luxury. It did not require long 
for us to become rested; the evening was cool and 
inviting for a stroll. Not far from our hotel was a 
pretty park, small but filled with trees and seats. 
This town by gas-light exhibited many new and 
curious customs. The streets are very clean, well 
paved and brilliantly illuminated. Many fancy 
shops lined the entrance to the business part of the 
town; the out-of-door booths attracted crowds by 
their bright lights and gay display of trinkets and 
toys of all kinds. The middle of the streets are used 
for promenading. We inquired what fete-day it 
was, and were quickly informed that it was only the 
usual evening turnout of the inhabitants, for thus 
they amuse themselves after a day of toil or study. 
Old and young passed hand in hand, the rich to their 
places of amusement, and the poor to theirs ; for all 



France and her People. 63 

classes in this countiy are provided with resorts, and 
charges are in proportion to the means of their 
patrons. 

This is the great mustard manufacturing town, 
and they also make a specialty of gingerbread, 
large shops containing nothing else. It is made in 
every form and of many varieties, — some filled with 
almonds, others with citron, and tied up in many- 
tinted papers, all painted and embellished with 
pleasing devices : prices from five centimes up to 
one hundred francs. It will keep for many months. 

The sights failed to beguile us into a long walk. 
Early we sought our rooms. We all arose re- 
freshed; the sun never shone brighter or warmer 
for the season. Dijon lies about eight hundred feet 
above the level of the sea, with the Cote d'Or 
extending on one side and the distant Jura Moun- 
tains in view, as far as the eye can reach, upon the 
opposite side. Altogether it is the most beautiful 
scenery I ever beheld : those mountain ranges, 
uneven and rugged, form a natural boundary of 
sublime grandeur. Our first call was at the palace 
of the Dukes of Burgundy, built in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries. One tower, a flight of stone 
steps, the kitchen, well, and oven are all that remain 
of the original handsome and extensive palace, 
which these dukes occupied for four hundred years, 
until the death of Charles the Bold, in 1476. Dur- 



64 France and her People. 

ing the past century part of this palace has been 
fitted up for a Hotel de Ville (court-house), and is a 
most interesting building from its antiquity and 
general history. A portion has also been con- 
verted into a museum, which is contiguous to the 
Hotel de Ville, and embraces a vast collection of 
mediaeval relics, carved ivory, paintings, ornaments, 
implements of war, and many monuments and 
statues. The most magnificent are those erected to 
the memory of the Dukes Philippe le Hardi, who 
died 1404, and Jean Sans Peur, who died 1419, and 
of Margaretha, wife of the latter, formerly in the 
church of St. Benigne. The church of St. Michael, 
built in 1529, purely Gothic, is in perfect preserva- 
tion, a splendid specimen of ancient architecture. 
At the side of the church is a pretty public garden 
and a fountain. We were all resting under the 
shade, when I espied an empty omnibus going down 
the street. I soon overtook it, and made a bargain 
for the vehicle ; no one regretted when it lumbered 
into view. Our first drive was to Notre Dame, built 
in 1229. Thus we proceeded from church to church, 
and were interested in all of them. St. Jean is now 
used for a depot for flour, St. Etienne for a market, 
and St. Philibert for cavalry stables. This town 
has a public library of 50,000 volumes. The thea- 
tre has a beautiful Corinthian front, and occupies a 
conspicuous place on the square. Several cafes are 



France and her People. 65 

near by, with their fronts studded with small round 
tables, and flowers in pots, and evergreens neatly 
arranged. 

A long drive to and through the ramparts, which 
are a leading feature in Dijon, satisfied us for this 
day's sight-seeing. They surround the walls, are 
lined with trees, and run in the form of Boulevards 
outside of, and parallel to the old ramparts, which 
are nothing more than elevated terraces. A wide, 
shady avenue, two miles long, leads to the park. 
It is furnished with ancient stone benches, placed at 
intervals. From this avenue many beautiful views 
can be obtained. 

The entrance to the park has a modern porter's 
lodge, and a parterre of lovely flowers. These an- 
cient grounds were laid out in 16 10. Roads traverse 
its precincts in every direction. The venerable trees 
are firmly and thickly entwined within the clinging 
embrace of the ivy, from their roots to their upper- 
most limbs. When the chilling blast bereaves them 
of their natural leafy decorations, then the faithful 
ivy still remains as true as in their sunny days of 
joyous June and July. How cheering to the pov- 
erty stricken and sorrowful ones would it be if the 
ties of love and friendship clung as firmly as the ivy 
to the oak. They are generally more after the fash-' 
ion of the butterfly, only alighting where some sweets 

may be inhaled, or circling in the orbit of wealth 
6* 



66 France and her People. 

and power. The ground was carpeted with the ivy. 
We enjoyed the ride through this olden park. 

Again we were early up, and prepared for a day 
of sight-seeing. The Botanical Garden is arranged 
skilfully and scientifically. The Park de l'Arque- 
buse contains a tree, the wonder of all behold- 
ers ; it is six hundred years old, of immense dimen- 
sions, affords ample shade, which extends many 
feet in circumference. It is a favorite playground 
for the juveniles. The Museum of Natural History 
has been greatly enlarged of late years. Dijon 
improved much during the Empire. Asyle des 
Alienes Lunatic Asylum was formerly the Char- 
treuse founded by Philippe le Hardi, 1383, as a 
burial-place for the ducal house. Charles the Bold 
lay here until his remains, in 1550, were removed by 
the Emperor Charles V. to Bruges. 

The gate is part of a tower. The well or cistern, 
called Les Puits de Moise, built in 1399, was par- 
tially destroyed during the revolution. Portions of 
it were restored ; still it shows the hand of time more 
than of war. It consists of an immense hexagonal 
pillar or pedestal, and has niches in which are the 
statues of Moses, David, Jeremiah, Zachariah, Dan- 
iel, Isaiah, under a rich canopy. The chapel is 
modern Gothic ; part of an old portal is flanked by 
statues of Philippe le Hardi and his wife, and their 
patron saint. Elegant paintings cover the walls* 



France and her People, 6/ 

The garden and grounds are admirably adapted to 
the wants of the inmates. We heard and saw many 
of them, all harmless. There is a number of incura- 
bles that could not be allowed out of their cells. 

Another evening spent in rambling about the town, 
for to-morrow we depart. I must not omit stating 
that for the storage of our trunks, we had to pay 
two cents a-piece. Why, I have been charged, in a 
certain city, three dollars for keeping three trunks 
over night ; but not in this country. 

Another clear day for our journey, which we 
hailed with joy. The Cote d'Or commences near 
Dijon ; this celebrated chain rises from eight hundred 
to a thousand feet in height. One mass of vineyards 
covers the hillsides, forming terrace upon terrace, and 
many have a cultivated tableland on the summit. 
The soil is golden colored. Here are grown the 
grapes that produce the choicest Burgundy wines, 
the Chambertin, Clos de Bleze, Tache, Nuits Ro- 
mance, and others. These sunny vineyards of Cote 
d'Or extend almost from Dijon to Chalon ; the prin- 
cipal vineyards lie between Dijon and Chagny; they 
describe an arc or circle, and are exposed to the sun, 
and protected by limestone hills on the northwest. 
There are said to be forty-five villages and towns be- 
tween Dijon and Beaunc, a distance of twenty-six 
miles. 

As a succession of stations, I can only make men- 



68 France and her People. 

tion of the principal ones. Beaune, on the Bouzoise, 
a flourishing town, the principal seat of the wine 
trade. Chalon-sur-Saone ; the Saone here is naviga- 
ble for large boats. This is the junction of the 
Canal du Centre with the Saone. Steamboats go to 
Lyons in five hours from here. From our left we 
had a view of the distant Jura Mountains, and to our 
right the snow-capped summit of Mont Blanc was 
visible for miles, towering above all else of earth, 
and pointing upward its pure emblem of innocency 
to the purer world above. I could not realize that 
it was one hundred and fifty miles off. Our first 
stop was at Macon, a town of 18,000 inhabitants, a 
great wine market, Lamartine's native place. The 
views are beautiful. The two ranges of hills of Bour- 
bonnais and Charolais (the latter is a continuation of 
Cote d'Or), render the scenery wild, although culti- 
vated. The foliage is just tinted with autumn's 
breath sufficiently to produce a pretty contrast with 
the still fresh green meadows and streamless banks. 
The station or depot is so grand and imposing, one 
might suppose its origin to be Roman. It is stone, 
elaborately carved, spacious, and fitted up with ele- 
gance. We have the Jura Mountains continually in 
view. This valley of the Saone is a romantic lovely 
vale. The near hills abound with handsome cha- 
teaux and villages, which form a boundary line ; they 
are most rural, with their thatched and moss-covered 



France and her People. 69 

roofs ; many have long haystacks close to the houses. 
They are the neatest, most orderly farms I ever saw. 

At Bourg we changed railway carriage again. It 
boasts of the very old church of Brou, of florid Go- 
thic style, built in 15 11-36, by Margaret of Austria. 
The church contains a splendid monument erected 
to the memory of the foundress, her husband, Phili- 
bert, Duke of Savoy, and her mother-in-law, Marga- 
ret of Bourbon. Amberien is situated at the base 
of the Jura Mountains, on the Albarine, a narrow, 
rapid mountain stream. After passing this town, 
the valley widens, and the view is grand ; the chalets 
are built on the steepest sides and slopes. They look 
as if no one could ever attain their position. We 
diverged from this valley, and soon Rossillon was 
announced; a long tunnel followed, and here we 
enter the valley of the Rhone. As darkness has 
enveloped all these natural beauties, we feel more 
inclined to stop amidst these mountain views, and 
enjoy the beauties of this region by daylight. We 
have had a day long to be remembered, for the pic- 
turesque country, and the excellent company are 
two requisites to render travelling agreeable, and to 
make a lasting impression. 

At the next station we leave our train for the dis- 
covery of unknown parts and people, and anticipate 
a treat to-morrow, as we enter Switzerland. Our 
companions are all of the right spirit and tempera- 



70 France and her People. 

ment to make a trip pleasant ; they can all appreciate 
the beautiful. 

Culoz station is the junction for Chambery in Italy, 
and St. Michael. Here at the southern base of Mt. 
Colombier, which rises 4700 feet, we left the railway, 
and concluded to make a stop, not wishing to lose 
the sight of this superb scenery. It was ten o'clock 
p. m., and we were told that no hotel or resting- 
place could be obtained except at the village of 
Culoz, one mile distant, and no conveyance. This 
to weary travellers was discouraging. There we 
stood, not knowing whither to go, or where we should 
lay our heads ; when a young man, lantern in hand, 
proffered his services to escort us to the village. On 
wearily we trudged, under the mountain ledge. Bare 
and wild was the scene ; the flickering light of the 
lamp only added to our curiosity to behold those 
towering ledges, whose tops seemed to touch the 
star-lit sky. There was a terminus, I am happy 
to state, to this walk sooner than I expected. We 
entered the dark old town, with narrow streets and 
high buildings. As I glanced upward, those night- 
beaming vigils seemed to welcome us to this peace- 
ful spot. Our guide announced our arrival at the 
only inn by a violent push at the door, which yielded 
to his effort, and we stood within a dimly-lighted 
room filled with wooden tables, where, no doubt, the 
wine-glasses sparkle all the night long. Wooden 



France and her People. yi 

chairs, a dirty floor, and that was all. In a moment 
what a change as the landlady glided into view, 
bearing her wax-candles ; at her presence all gloom 
vanished. She came forward, welcomed us with 
seeming pleasure, apologized for the disorder, pre- 
sented us chairs, with the ease and grace of a high- 
born lady ; she also informed us that there was not 
a vacant bed in the house, this being the annual fair. 
What a damper to our worn hearts. We all ex- 
pected a soft, downy pillow to welcome us at least. 
The landlady shrugged her shoulders, rubbed her 
hands, and said un petit malheur (a little misfortune) ; 
for if we would manage to occupy one room she 
could accommodate us, as her room was at our 
disposal. We would have consented to take 
half of a room. To reduce minutes into seconds, 
one of our party called for wine, sugar and water, 
and the pure juice, rich and refreshing, produced the 
desired effect. We obeyed the summons to mount 
the old stone steps. On we went rejoicing until we 
reached our quarters, which was a long room con- 
taining four beds, all clean and covered with nice 
linen ; we had every comfort, and we all seven of us 
never slept sounder. There were no windows in the 
room, but a glass door opening on a verandah. I 
awoke very early, and softly opening the door passed 
out. Between the old lofty buildings I could behold 
the Savoy Mountains, their dark outlines contrasting 



72 France and her People. 

beautifully with the pure azure of the morning sky, 
which was delicately tinted with the light of the 
unrisen sun. 

I passed into the street ; and that early walk was 
replete with novelty, and gave me an insight into the 
manners and customs of the happy vintagers, com- 
posed of the sons and daughters of France of all 
ages. At first I was startled by the clamorous beat- 
ing of the drum ; a corpulent, short man carried this 
unmusical instrument up and down all the streets ; 
in this manner he awakens the inhabitants ; thus they 
are called out by drum to be in readiness to leave 
all together for the vineyards. Soon the people came 
out in great numbers, and all appeared to be congre- 
gating in an open square in the centre of the village. 
I followed the crowd, and soon had my curiosity 
gratified, for here a large fountain is situated, with a 
massive stone cross rising from the middle, of Roman 
origin. To my surprise, hundreds were busy going 
through their morning ablutions ; such greetings, 
such a noise, such a rubbing as the juveniles had to 
endure was pitiable. They came prepared with soap 
and towels ; their toilet completed, they turned all in 
one direction. As I had an hour or two to pass 
away, I wandered after these primitive people, not 
knowing where I would find myself. Soon I stood 
beside the small plain chapel, and entered with the 
peasant throng, early as it was. Many, old and 



France and her People. 73 

young, were on their knees. I asked a person if it 
was a holy day ? The answer quite startled me : 
"Are not all • days holy when we require God's 
care?" I replied, " Yes." "As you are a stranger, 
madam, I will inform you, with great pleasure, that 
we always meet here to implore the protection of the 
ban Dien during the day." This ancient custom has 
dwindled into oblivion in many countries, if it ever 
existed ; to me it gave a charm to this place which 
I can never forget. Upon leaving the church, they 
dispersed to their respective abodes, and in an hour 
I saw many of them leaving for the vineyards in 
wagons and carts, drawn by cows, mules, donkeys, 
and horses, all of them in fine spirits, singing, laugh- 
ing, and apparently as happy as if they were wending 
their way to a grand gala, instead of only hastening 
to a day's work in the fields. They are contented 
and happy, seeking nought, and desiring no other 
clime or home than their vine-clad hills and their 
pure mountain air, which is so fresh and invigorating 
that the old almost seem young again. 

It was a novelty to see grapes pass by the wagon- 
load. We endeavored to purchase a few ; such a 
thing was unknown, never less than a hundred 
pounds was sold. We had a most polite invitation 
to help ourselves. * One rosy-cheeked young peasant 
presented us some fine bunches, adding, " Ladies, 

when you are thirsty on the railway these grapes 
7 



74 France and her People. 

will refresh you, then please remember the peasant 
boy of Culoz," which we promised to do. By the 
time we reached the inn (for several of our party had 
joined me) breakfast was announced. We all seated 
ourselves, and soon we were discussing the pure 
linen and bright ware, never thinking what a repast 
would be served — delicious coffee, chickens, lamb 
chops, bread, butter, wine, and the most tempting 
baskets of fruit, still moist with dewdrops, consisting 
of pears, apricots, and the purple grape. The moderate 
bill was soon cancelled ; after many thanks, and wishes 
for our bon voyage, we started for the depot. The 
walk was most charming, — a wide smooth road, with 
a hedge and shrubbery enclosing the rich purple 
grapes ; to our left, and on our right, rose the moun- 
tains towering thousands of feet towards the canopy 
of blue; an occasional villa embosomed in frescades 
of varied foliage relieved the eye from the grand 
mountain views to the inviting rural homes. As we 
passed one field, the vintagers accosted us, and, had 
we accepted, would have laden us with the juicy 
fruit. Culoz contains 121 1 inhabitants. At the sta- 
tion we were obliged to remain two hours. Many 
persons were collected, as from this point several 
different roads branch off, — one to Switzerland and 
Italy by Mont Cenis, one to Paris, etc. It appears 
to be a very central location. 

I was enquiring for a newspaper, when a gendarme 



France and her People, 75 

(soldier) politely presented me with one. I told him 
that paper was against my politics. He said, " 0, it 
is only published by evil-minded persons, who would 
be delighted to witness the downfall of our govern- 
ment. That can never be, for our Emperor has the 
army on his side, and we are strong and true. What 
a pity^you did not visit our town a few days ago," 
he added ; " then you would have seen a great many 
people collected from all the villages, to see the Em- 
press Eugenie as she passed on her way to the East. 
Most unfortunately, the Imperial train arrived here 
after dark. The disappointment was great, of course ; 
but the Imperial train cannot always reach each 
station by daylight." 

Our next rest was at Seyssel, a town of 1500 in- 
habitants, situated upon the Rhone, whose waters are 
a dark deep blue. A pretty town opposite, on the 
Savoy side, is connected by a suspension bridge. 
The masonry and blasting upon this route cost vast 
sums of money ; some of the tunnels pass directly 
under the mountains. 

Bellegarde is most beautifully situated on the 
Rhone. Here an opportunity was given us to view 
the Porte du Rhone, where the river plunges into 
the earth, and continues its subterraneous course 
through caverns in the limestone rocks for one hun- 
dred and twenty yards. This phenomenon is only 
visible when the river is low. The valley is narrow, 



J 6 France and her People. 

and the river banks rocky. The cascades rush 
headlong over their precipitous bounds ; the worn 
channel of the River Valserine was almost dry, which 
often occurs in summer. 

After crossing the viaduct, we entered the tunnel 
of Mont Credo, which is two and a half miles long, 
and cost seven and a half millions of francs to com- 
plete. The time occupied to pierce through this 
mountain was three years and six months. Oh, the 
horrors of being excluded from the glorious sun- 
beams ! The damp, sepulchral air was stifling ; I 
could only compare this chaos to the state of human 
beings who never had a spiritual light illuming their 
dark, sin-caverned souls. I was rejoiced when the 
light burst upon us, and we beheld this wild and 
narrow gorge through which the Rhone makes its 
passage between Bellegarde and Collonges, formed 
by Mont Vonache on the Savoy side, and Mont 
Credo, the extremity of the Jura, on the opposite 
side. 

Not far from the upper end of this defile stands 
the strong and picturesque Fort de l'Ecluse, com- 
manding the entrance into France. It was disman- 
tled by the Austrians in 1814, but has been rebuilt 
by the French since 1824. Batteries have been ex- 
cavated in the solid rocks, and these communicate 
with the barracks below by a broad flight of one 
hundred steps, hewn in solid rock. The fort looked 



France and her People, 77 

gay, as many soldiers were seen at every point, some 
on duty, others basking in the sunshine, numbers 
listlessly purring their favorite weed. After passing 
Collonges we entered Switzerland at Chancy station. 
Here the valley widens, and the prospect is beautiful. 
La Plaine we rush past, and several minor towns, 
and then the long expected city of Geneva was 
announced. 

The sojourn of a week in Switzerland was replete 
with interest, and we bade adieu to that romantic, 
beautiful country with regret. A hasty return to 
Paris was unavoidable, but we consoled ourselves 
with the prospect of another and more extensive tour 
amidst towering mountains, ice-bound seas, ravines, 
valleys of verdant beauty, and lakes of which poets 
have writen for ages. Therefore, I will again resume 
the daily routine of the time spent in France with 
her people. 




CHAPTER VIII. 

St. Cloud — Emperor — Prince Imperial — Royal hunt — Weddings- 
Child's remark — Sunday in Paris — Tea. 

Y a special invitation we arrived at the Palace 
of St. Cloud on a lovely day in early autumn. 
On alighting from our carriage we were received by 
an officer of the palace, who escorted us into the 
presence of the grand chamberlain of his Majesty, 
with whom we traversed several elegantly decorated 
apartments ; then he requested us to be seated until 
he announced our arrival. Returning in a few mo- 
ments, he said, " Please walk this way." Ere we 
crossed the -threshold, a gentleman came forward, 
extended his hand, and gave us a cordial welcome. 
It was the Emperor. 

We had a delightful call. He spoke of his sojourn 
in America, and said, " The Americans are great 
travellers ; they think no more of crossing the ocean 
than we do the channel." The Emperor alluded 
with pleasure to an interview he had enjoyed with 
Mr. S. C. Abbott, the American author. 

The young Prince being present, I remarked to 

him that he should visit America. He replied, " I 

78 



France and her People. 79 

would like to see that great country ; but I think it 
would be a long journey for me to undertake." 

After the termination of our visit we had the plea- 
sure of viewing the grounds, gardens, and park. A 
short sketch of their beauties may interest many, 
now that they no longer exist After leaving the 
palace we enter the avenue, passing La Haute et la 
Basse Cascade, two beautiful falls of water, surmounted 
by a masterly group representing the Seine and the 
Marne. The fountains play every alternate Sunday. 

The grand jet d'eau rises to a height of 140 feet ; 
the fish-pond contains masses of the finny tribe, who 
sport in great glee, much to the delight of the visi- 
tors. A charming walk to the right, then the ascent 
of a green grassy slope, and you are in sight of the 
palace gardens, abounding with vegetables, fruit, and 
flowers. 

On reaching the summit of the hill, you are repaid 
by a view of the celebrated " Lanterne de Demos- 
thene." It is a lofty tower, terminated by a cupola, 
and supported by Corinthian columns. Napoleon I. 
erected it in imitation of the so-called Lantern of 
Demosthenes at Athens. From the summit of this 
tower a splendid panoramic view is obtained. Far 
below gently flows the meandering Seine, whose 
waters are covered with life scenes, — steamboats and 
rowboats, sailing parties, and scores of patient 
anglers all awaiting a nibble. The bridge of St. 



80 France and her People. 

Cloud, with its white arches so well defined, con- 
necting those green mossy banks, gives variety to 
the landscape. Beyond lies the town and Bois de 
Boulogne basking in the sunshine, and like a blazing 
meteor the dome of the Invalides glitters in the dis- 
tance, then the Arc de Triomphe, and afar in the 
background Montmartre. St. Sulpice is also visible, 
and to the right the dome of the church of Val de 
Grace and the village of Issy, which is memorable 
for being tlie spot where, on July 3d, 18 15, the last 
struggle for the possession of Paris took place be- 
tween Blucher and Davoust. We could also distin- 
guish Pere Lachaise. 

Retracing our steps, we entered our carriage and 
enjoyed a most delightful ride home through the 
Bois de Boulogne ; then calling at the American 
Legation, we had the pleasure of an interview with 
the Hon. E. B. Washburne, the American ambassa- 
dor, whose smile of welcome and kindly greeting can 
never be forgotten. 

A few days after our visit at St. Cloud we had 
the pleasure of encountering the Emperor and his 
escort en route for a hunt. The party presented a 
fine array. The next day the papers announced the 
number of heads his Majesty laid low, proving he is 
an excellent shot, and fond of the sport. 

The rain fell in torrents, water and mud flowed in 
murky streams down the streets. As I stood gazing 



France and her People. 81 

from the window, I espied a group of merry ones 
awaiting on the curbstone an opportunity to cross 
through the crowd of vehicles. There they were, 
the bride and groom hand in hand. She looked 
pretty ; her dark eyes sparkled beneath the wreath of 
orange blossoms that decked her brow; her long 
white veil fluttered languidly in the rain ; her white 
muslin dress was dripping with pearly drops ; her 
white satin slippers were scarcely soiled, for she 
lightly tripped over the muddy street. The groom's 
black suit of broadcloth, probably his first, in the 
button-hole of his coat a nosegay of natural flowers, 
— a toilet could not be complete without a sprig of 
Flora's kingdom, — his white waistcoat, cravat, gloves, 
and black beaver,— this was his nuptial attire. Then 
followed the bridesmaids and groomsmen, four in 
number ; then the aged sire and his bride of other 
days, his hoary head covered with a blue cap, his 
honest face radiant with smiles ; his clean blue blouse 
and wooden shoes told that they belonged to the 
oitvrier (working class). 

The mother, in her best black gown, white cap, 
and a choice bouquet, bore the only sorrowful face 
in that wedding-party. No doubt she was losing her 
only daughter, the comfort of her declining years. 
As they turned into the Palais Royal, I could not 
suppress a sigh of sympathy for the sad mother. 

Upon another occasion, at a railway station, we 



82 France and her People. 

met a bridal party belonging to the same class. In 
this case the bride's dress was long ; she trailed it, 
unconscious that it had accumulated a dark border 
often inches in depth. The party numbered twelve; 
and were so infatuated with their own fete that they 
heeded neither place nor person. They chatted and 
laughed in that crowded thoroughfare with the same 
freedom as if in their trellis-covered arbor, to which 
they were hastening. 

The middle and working classes always terminate 
the celebration of their nuptials by a dinner at a 
favorite restaurant in the city or some suburban 
town. They all have a garden containing many ar- 
bors of different sizes, some square, some round, 
some oblong, and thickly overgrown with the cle- 
matis, ivy, running roses, woodbine, or the gaudy 
trumpet creeper, each arbor containing a wooden 
table painted green, and seats, and carpeted by na- 
ture's well-trodden soil. They are inviting, snug, 
exclusive retreats. How delicious the cool, iced 
syrups and nectars are sipped amid the fragrance of 
many flowers ; and when weary, you are lulled into 
a gentle quiet by the carol of many songsters, or 
perhaps aroused from your reverie by the merriment 
from the adjoining arbor. These people seem to live 
for enjoyment; and those that desire it can ever find, 
even in this selfish world, more sources of happiness 
than misery. 



France and her People. &$ 

On another occasion we found ourselves by invi- 
tation in the modern church of St. Augustine ; the 
bridal draperies of white were hung; the organ 
pealed forth its liveliest airs ; by the altar stood the 
young couple, — the lovely bride decked with that 
elegance wealth can command, the groom, brides- 
maids and groomsmen, four in number, all added to 
the splendid ceremony by their appearance. 

The party numbered several hundred, all arrayed 
in costly silks and velvets of every hue. After the 
ceremony, a pause of a few seconds, then the brides- 
maids and groomsmen rose ; the ladies received a 
small red velvet bag embroidered with gold braid ; 
they were then led by the groomsmen to every per- 
son in the church, and the small bag was gracefully 
presented for a voluntary contribution for the poor 
of the parish. 

This custom is always followed after the marriage 
of the rich. Quite a sensation was caused by one 
of the ladies dropping the bag ; bright coins rolled 
in all directions. A willing hand soon restored the 
offerings. More than a hundred carriages were in 
requisition to convey the guests away. 

All brides in France dress in white, and are ever 
adorned with orange blossoms. It is very customary 
for the opulent to have a dinner and ball at some 
first-class hotel. During our sojourn at the Hotel 
du Louvre, two splendid weddings were celebrated ; 



84 France and her People. 

the music and dancing did not cease until day tress- 
passed upon the festive scene. 

Walking with a friend one day, who wished to 
purchase wood, we stopped at a " charbonnerie," as 
the coal and wood dealer's store is named. In front of 
his domicil stood the dingy wagon ; it contained his 
four little daughters, all as black as night; their 
dresses, faces, nay eyes, were true specimens of car- 
bon. Their joyous laugh and sparkling eyes bespoke 
their health. 

The good dame stepped forward, saying, " Ladies, 
I am proud of my girls." The eldest, about eleven, 
sprang suddenly up, exclaiming, " I am happier than 
our good Empress." I asked the child why. " Be- 
cause," she replied, " she is not sure she will always 
be our Empress, and I can always play in father's 
coal wagon, eat bread, and drink wine." How pro- 
phetic have been that child's words. Often since 
the dreadful day of September 4th, have I thought of 
that trifling incident. 

Sunday in Paris is not materially different from 
the Sabbath in most Christian countries, except the 
government allows places of amusement to be open. 
Must they be patronized by Protestants and foreign- 
ers? Not unless the individual inclinations lead 
them to join the pleasure-seekers and non-religious ; 
but Christians of all denominations can find a house 
of worship. If they prefer attending worship with 



France and her People. 85 

the devout Roman Catholics, strangers have free 
access to all their churches and ceremonies. Every 
intelligent person knows that after mass and ves- 
pers, they consider their religious duty performed, 
and many of them spend the remainder of the Sab- 
bath in recreation and amusements. 

Many persons are obliged to work half the Sab- 
bath. That custom is becoming extinct to a certain 
degree. I observed with pleasure that the greater 
portion of first-class shops, retail and wholesale, were 
closed on Sunday. 

I have frequently watched with delight, from my 
window at Versailles, on the arrival of the afternoon 
trains from Paris, the happy people thronging into 
those grand old woods, all walking with eager steps 
to reach God's noble works, trees, flowers and grass, 
to refresh their heavy eyesight that for six days be- 
held nought but dark workshops, tiresome looms, with 
difficult and intricate work for their head and hands. 
Could any Christian wish to shut them up, afar from 
sunshine, pure air, and healthful enjoyment ? 

The men do not come alone to drink and carouse. 
No. The old father is led by a dutiful son ; the 
aged mother hobbles with cane in hand, and sup- 
ported by the smiling granddaughter to a seat under 
the shade of these forest trees. The hale hearty 
workmen I have often seen carrying a child in each 
arm ; thus they would pass by hundreds, and in a 



86 France and her People. 

few hours pass again, homeward bound, having bro- 
ken no. law, or injured any one by word or deed. 

I have attended church regularly, often twice a 
day, and never saw more profound attention, or 
churches half as well filled in the afternoon, as in this 
" wicked Paris," as many love to designate this abode 
of the world. There is no civilized nation on earth 
that has not its representatives here. 

I was not particular as to the creed, being satisfied 
if I was in a house of God among Christians. I 
attended the Church of England, the American 
Chapel, the Methodist, the French Presbyterian, the 
Scotch, and often the Roman Catholic ; the latter at 
the church of the Invalides, the music being very 
inviting, and the sermons excellent, practical dis- 
courses. I enjoyed the services. I have seen the 
stone floors covered with kneeling forms, among 
them many old and young soldiers. When these 
people worship, they throw their entire heart and 
soul into their prayers and anthems. 

The French Presbyterian church in the Rue Ro- 
quepine has a vast congregration. The Rev. Mr. 
D'Ombres preaches here alternately with other di- 
vines. He is very eloquent, and his auditors ap- 
peared absorbed in his sermons. The ushers are 
women, who provide seats, books, and in cold wea- 
ther foot-stoves. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Church, just opposite, is 



France and her People. 8j 

a plain, neat edifice. An ardent young French divine 
preaches here every Sunday afternoon; English ser- 
vice in the morning, and German in the latter part of 
the afternoon ; Sabbath-school twice a day ; also the 
same weekly meetings are held as in Protestant coun- 
tries. 

I cannot refrain remarking that, in my walks to 
and from church, I saw, according to the population, 
as many foreigners walking and driving for pleasure 
as French persons. I heard a French gentleman 
say that, were it not for the foreigners in Paris, not 
half the places of amusement could be sustained on 
Sundays. 

The Sabbath desecrators are not entirely the 
" wicked French people." Do you suppose, kind 
reader, that no one from Christian England, Ger- 
many, or America ever lounges at the cafes, or at- 
tends the theatres, or participates in the horse-races, 
or forms line in the vast procession that encircles 
the lake in the Bois de Boulogne on Sunday after- 
noons? 

If you have that idea you labor under a great de- 
lusion. Thousands from those countries patronize 
every rendezvous of pleasure on the Sabbath. A 
minister of the gospel (from what country no matter) 
told me he was shocked at the profanation of God's 
holy day ; at the same time I knew he formed one 
of a party that spent most of one Sunday in visiting 



88 France and her People. 

various churches for curiosity and pleasure. What 
consistency ! Alas, for human weakness. How 
much easier to see the mote in our neighbor's eye 
than a beam in our own ? 

I was taking breakfast in the Palais Royal, and 
requested the waiter (gargons, they are called,) to 
bring me a cup of tea. Before taking the order, 
he said, " Excuse me, madam ; I hope you are not 
ill ? " I said, " No." " I will bring the tea, madam ; 
but indeed it will make you sick if you are well." I 
laughed, and told him I would venture to take one 
small cup. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Sewers — Palais Royal — Street cleaning and paving — Mushrooms- 
Fruit vendors — P&te de foie gras de Strasbourg. 

\^X 7E received a permit to visit the sewers of 
Paris ; and at the appointed hour we stood 
in front of the Madeleine, that being the point of de- 
scent. Several large flag stones were raised, and a 
temporary railing placed around the opening. In 
company with nearly one hundred persons we com- 
menced our entry to the unknown regions; in single 
file we proceeded down twenty-three stone steps, the 
way illumined by lamps. 

The only idea I had formed of the sewers of Paris 
was from Victor Hugo's description. At the termi- 
nus of the steps we passed through a wide opening ; 
two officials stood waiting to assist the company into 
the boats, which to our astonished eyes were nicely 
cushioned ; seats comfortable ; a large globe lamp in 
the centre cast a pleasant light on the turbid waters. 
Only ladies in the boats, the gentlemen walked on 
the three-feet wide footpath, which is upon both 
sides of the canal. 

The canal is fifteen feet wide, and very deep. We 
8* 89 



90 France and her People. 

were pulled gaily along by ten men on each side 
with cable ropes. They seemed to consider the 
work a pastime. The arch is at least thirty feet high, 
the masonry most solid, and every stone laid with 
exactitude. The water pipes for all purposes pass 
the entire length of the sewers ; they are substantially 
riveted in by heavy iron brackets to the wall ; this 
water arrangement is a most wonderful piece of me- 
chanism. In a few moments Paris could be deprived 
of water. 

Art controls these waters more than nature. It 
was the most grotesque boat- ride I ever enjoyed ; 
all the party appeared in fine spirits, judging from 
the merry peals of laughter, the jokes, and fun that 
made the grim walls resound with gleesome echoes. 

The lamps are provided with large reflectors, 
which brilliantly illuminate these sombre walls. 
The prospective is very fine, and the reflection in the 
water a pretty sight. We travelled by boat to the 
Place de la Concorde, then disembarked. We here 
met a party that had just arrived by rail from the 
other entrance. We exchanged vehicles ; I recog- 
nized Colonel M. of the American Legation among 
the railway travellers. 

The railway track lies exactly upon the edge of a 
narrow stone footpath, and over a narrow stream, 
which flows swiftly. We had two conductors to pull 
and to push. These carriages are most convenient, 



France and her People. 91 

well finished, seat twelve persons, and are supplied 
with four large lamps. This was more exhilarating 
than the boat ride ; our guides or conductors being 
genuine sons of the mountains from the Vosges, 
they ran, they leaped, they sang, laughed, and 
talked in their own dialect, resembling the Canadian 
French. 

All admitted they had never enjoyed such a jovial 
ride under ground. We came the whole length of the 
Rue de Rivoli ; passed the Tuileries and the Louvre ; 
each street is distinctly named, marked in full on the 
walls. The ventilation is from the side ; occasion- 
ally a ray of light penetrates this subterraneous pas- 
sage. The rumbling of the wheels over head sounds 
like distant thunder. 

Fifty thousand troops could be transported from 
one part of Paris to the other in a short period. We 
alighted three miles and a half from the entering 
point. The most remarkable feature in this country 
is that there is nothing to pay at any public institu- 
tion, and all palaces, churches, museums, zoological 
gardens are free, and ushers are at every place to 
escort visitors, to explain everything, and to answer 
all questions propounded. 

The Palais Royal dates from 1636, when Cardinal 
Richelieu erected a palace for himself opposite the 
Louvre. Anne of Austria, the widow of Louis XIII., 
and her two sons, Louis XIV. and Philip of Orleans, 



92 France and her People. 

resided here. From that epoch it was called Palais 
Royal. It is surrounded by rows of houses, built by 
Philippe Egalite, who was beheaded in his bed in 
1780. He led a riotous, extravagant life; but from 
the rental of these houses he replenished his almost 
exhausted treasury. Since that period they have 
been the great centre of retail commerce in objects 
of luxury — objets de luxe. They present a most 
beautiful, dazzling sight of gold and silver ware, pre- 
cious gems, fancy and useful articles. When these 
shops are illuminated, with the addition of three hun- 
dred arcade lamps, the scene is one glow of effulgent 
light. Then turning, the visitor beholds the fountain 
playing in wild delight, which resembles the meteoric 
rays shooting from the northern horizon. This 
fountain is situated in the middle of the garden, 
which is 320 feet in length and 120 wide, four rows 
of elms affording shade. The flower-beds are the 
fairest spot in this bewitching scene, where night is 
turned into day. 

A military band pours forth melodious strains 
nightly, and there the gay company sits, some 
beating time with their canes or knuckles ; others 
enjoy their favorite weed, and regale themselves with 
what they desire. 

When the sun is at the meridian a small cannon 
on the grass plot is fired by means of a burning 
glass ; it always gives a shock. I have seen sixty 



France and her People. 93 

persons at breakfast, all start involuntarily as soon as 
they heard the sound. It causes quite a merriment, 
as every day they have the same experience. 

The apartments in the south wing are occupied by 
Prince Napoleon, and are open to the public for in- 
spection during the absence of his family. They are 
elegantly decorated, and contain many valuable spe- 
cimens of skill and taste. I have seen a crowd stand 
by the hour watching for the Prince to come out in 
his carriage. The changing of the guard also at- 
tracted many curious spectators each day. The 
children of the Prince dressed very simply, and could 
be seen frequently playing in the palace court-yard, 
or driving out in an open barouche. 

The Theatre Francais is also within the limits of 
the Palais Royal. It is a favorite haunt for the ad- 
mirers of light comedy, and those who are not very 
fastidious in their taste. I have often been told that 
no respectable, refined French mothers would allow 
their daughters to attend this theatre, where nightly 
crowds of young American girls are present. I 
wonder that they should evince such a perverted 
taste to patronize this theatre ; for in Paris there are 
many high-toned opera houses and theatres for those 
who desire such recreation. 

There are probably forty restaurants in the Palais 
Royal alone ; several of the best arc located in the 
Passage d'Orleans, an arcade 300 feet long, and cov- 



94 France a?id her People. 

ered with a roof of glass, having a row of fancy 
stores on each side. It opens into the garden, and 
leads from the rear into the public street. Paris 
abounds with these gay arcades ; they look very en 
ticing to enter when illuminated in the evening, and 
I found them an admirable shelter when it rained. 

The asphalt pavement has been most successfully 
used for fifteen years. Asphalt is a bituminous sub- 
stance, found in Asia, Europe, and in some parts of 
South America, and abounds in the island of Trini- 
dad, also on the borders of the Dead Sea. What a 
money-saving improvement it would be if sister cities 
would adopt this clean, pleasant method of paving 
or plastering the rough cobble stone streets. This 
cement is durable, easily repaired, and can be used 
for years without an indentation from the wheels. 

The street cleaning and sweeping is done mostly 
by Prussian women. They go on duty at one o'clock 
in the morning. Each one has her section; the 
police are stationed along the streets to prevent all 
out-breaks, and quell disputes. By six o'clock in 
the morning all accumulations must be removed, or 
the law is enforced. 

I was in the habit of rising early, and from my 
window have watched the number of collectors, if 
that is their proper name, overhaul the heaps. When 
two in pursuit of different substances met, they would 
bow and patiently wait, until the first comer had 



France and her People. 95 

thoroughly searched the contents ; usually the picker of 
rags came first, secondly the bone picker, thirdly the 
picker of coals, fourthly the picker of cigar ends, and 
lastly the huge wagon comes along, with two women 
to sweep, and a man to shovel into the wagon ; they 
leave nothing to blow away. This performance is 
repeated every morning. The driver walks beside 
the horses, appearing, by his dignified bearing, un- 
conscious that he only drives a garbage wagon. 

These women are accustomed to laborious toil 
from infancy in their own country; they endure 
great hardships. Here they live cheaply, and drink 
good wine. They can procure a wholesome meal 
for ten cents, at restaurants for their class. Some 
houses can give wine, bread, and meat for three cents 
a portion. Their dress is suitable for their menial 
occupation — woollen skirts and sacques, wooden 
shoes, blue yarn stockings, and around their necks 
and heads, gay cotton handkerchiefs, which they tie 
up in a fanciful manner ; even the youngest of these 
women uses the long birch broom with dexterity 
and strength. 

Many persons have a very erroneous idea relative 
to the raising of mushrooms, supposing they are cul- 
tivated in the Catacombs. They are not in the least 
connected with that ghastly region. I make this 
statement from the best authority ; being very fond 
of the vegetable, partaking of them almost daily, 



g6 France and her People. 

they would have lost their bon gout for me were they 
grown in a soil made from dead men's bones. 

In the vicinity of Paris, and underneath, mush- 
rooms are extensively cultivated. The stone of which 
Paris is built has been taken from underground 
quarries, seventy and eighty feet below the surface, 
worked like coal mines ; in these quarries the mush- 
rooms are grown. In one of the abandoned quarries, 
more than twenty-five miles of mushroom beds exist ; 
in another quarry there are eighteen miles of mush- 
room beds. In one day they have been known to 
yield as many as four thousand pounds for the Paris 
market. 

All that is requisite to grow mushrooms is a mass 
of short stable manure, that has been heated to the 
warmth of from fifty-five to sixty degrees ; place 
small pieces of mushroom spawn, the size of a walnut, 
just below the surface of the manure, a few inches 
apart ; then cover the whole with a light friable earth ; 
then cover with two inches of straw, — by this means 
mushrooms can be raised in abundance. The tem- 
perature must be moderate. 

I think dried bones, bare and bleached, would alone 
be a very meagre fertilizer. Many also have a false 
impression in regard to truffles ; they are of a fungous 
nature, indigenous to the localities where found. 
Spontaneous in their growth, they send up no visible 
signs of their existence. They are generally found 



France and her People. 97 

deeply imbedded in the earth at the roots of forest 
trees. Near the city of Amiens in France, the pro- 
duce is prolific. They are a rare delicacy, and com- 
mand a brisk sale in European markets. Their 
flavor is considered essential for certain dishes, for 
which there cannot be a substitute. In appearance 
they resemble the common potatoe, except that they 
are very dark, almost black, never large, usually 
oval, and rather flat. 

Perhaps it might be interesting to my readers to 
understand the process by which the far-famed 
" Pate de foie gras de Strasbourg " (the pies of fatted 
livers of Strasbourg) attained their excellency. They 
are only the livers of geese. When young the geese 
are placed in dark cellars, from which every ray of 
light is excluded ; here they are continually fed with 
the best food ; by darkness and high living, the livers 
become enormous, and of a peculiarly fine flavor, but 
still healthful food. That has been satisfactorily 
proved. 

This is one of the Strasbourg specialties, affording 
a lucrative traffic to many persons. Strasbourg pies 
are renowned throughout Europe. They can be 
kept many weeks, fresh and good. I would prefer 
dispensing with this dainty dish, and allow the fowls 
to sport in sunshine and storm, on land or water, as 
they choose. 

The fruit-venders of Paris alone constitute a large 
9 



98 France and her People. 

colony ; they are an honest hard-working class. How 
few persons pause to think of the long weary miles 
they trudge to wheel those tempting fruits they so 
tastefully arrange. What a laborious life ! From 
early dawn till past midnight they still maybe heard 
crying, " Voila la belle Valence " (here are the beauti- 
ful Valence) oranges, from the neighborhood of a 
city bearing that name in the south of France. 

The fruits are placed so as to produce the best 
effect. One collection of summer fruits will suffice 
to explain their appearance. Placed on a wheelbar- 
row, or push-cart, is a wide tray, with an edge six 
inches high, which is bordered with rich clusters of 
purple and white grapes alternately blended. In 
the centre on white paper are plums, green and pur- 
ple. The four corners are divided at right angles, 
and contain pears, yellow, green, and mixed. In the 
opposite corners are peaches and apricots tempt- 
ingly displayed. Each fruit in its season is thus 
offered for sale. 

Looking from my window early one morning, 
I thought a vender of gay-tinted flowers was ap- 
proaching. To my surprise it was only vegetables. 
You may smile that I could be so deceived, but the 
delusion was perfect at a distance. The outside 
row was formed of small turnip radishes, red and 
white, tied in bunches, and surrounded by green 
leaves, all the fibres being removed ; next a row of 



France and her People, 99 

tomatoes and turnips, with fresh green leaves grace- 
fully entwined; then the orange carrot formed a 
circle around the pure cauliflowers. I here confess 
I never saw a handsomer floral display that was purely 
vegetable. 




CHAPTER X. 

Gobelins — Clock Beauvais — Diorama of Solferino — Champs Elys^es 
— Place de la Concorde — A determined woman. 



' ^HE manufactory of the celebrate Gobelins is on 
-®- the Rue Mouffetard, a long, wide, and in some 
parts unimproved avenue. The buildings are mostly 
inferior ; time under the present regime may convert 
this section into the same magnificent grandeur that 
now adorns the most of Paris. Our arrival at the 
gate was in advance of the hour ordered by law. 
Upon no plea could the keeper be prevailed upon to 
admit even the ladies. His argument was correct : 
" If I allow the ladies to-day to enter, how will my 
superior officer know that to-morrow I will not let 
all the men, women, and children rush in at all 
hours ? No, no. I obey orders. If the ladies are 
cold, in yonder shop they will find a fire." 

We availed ourselves of his advice, as a raw No- 
vember wind was blowing ; and having a few mo- 
ments to while away, we entered the refeshment, 
cake, and grocery shop, all in one combined. After 
a few purchases, I remarked to the lady : " This part 
of your city does not compare with many sections in 

IOO 



France a?id her People. 101 

wealth and grandeur." A very sharp, unexpected 
answer she gave me : " Do you not know that Rome 
was not built in a day ? To accomplish what has 
already been done in our city would, under ordinary 
circumstances, have occupied the alloted time of a 
man's life. It is incredible, wonderful, the trans- 
formation of this city since I was a child." But, 
shrugging her shoulders and thrusting her hands 
into her apron pockets, she continued : "A certain 
class is never satisfied ; it expects our Emperor to 
pave the streets with gold, and the people permitted 
to shovel it up and cart it away." 

" I beg your pardon, madam. I intended no re- 
flection upon any one." " Very well," she said. " I 
am surrounded by faultfinding people, who are con- 
tinually bickering about our government ; so that I 
have made up my mind to vindicate, upon every 
occasion, our ruler." 

I concluded to be more judicious in even making 
a casual remark. We did not understand each other, 
for our political sentiments were the same ; she was 
so fearful I might express a word of censure. The 
honest woman was rather fierce to a stranger. 

The manufactory is a plain building, with no archi- 
tectural embellishments. The artisans or operatives 
number 280; they sit behind their frames, having 
their model beside them, weaving without seeing the 
right side, except when they desire. They are all 
9* 



102 France and her People. 

provided with a small mirror, thereby viewing their 
progress. This work requires an accurate eye, as 
well as patience and skill. 

An area of six square inches is the daily task of 
each workman. After working a number of years 
their eyesight becomes impaired, and blindness has 
resulted. The largest designs require years of labor 
to accomplish, and when finished are worth from a 
thousand to six thousand pounds. This work is 
copying, being &fac simile of the paintings and other 
designs: no originality is required. The exhibition 
rooms are inadequate to the wants of the manufac- 
tory ; frequently specimens have to be removed to 
exhibit new ones. Two in particular are worthy of 
note : the life-size portraits of the Emperor and Em- 
press ; they are splendidly wrought. These choice 
and costly fabrics are presented to foreign courts, 
ambassadors, personages of high rank, or to any one 
that may be fortunate enough to be the recipient of 
such a gift from the Emperor. 

The silks employed are of all colors, and consist 
of an innumerable variety of shades ; many of them 
can only be produced from the waters of a brook 
which flows into the Seine at the bridge of Austerlitz, 
at the southern extremity of Paris — La Bievre, the 
name of the brook which has been renowned for its 
dyeing properties. As early as 1450 Jean Gobelin 
established a dyeing factory on its banks ; and from 



France and her People. 103 

that period those waters have no equal, no rival ; 
they have the monopoly. 

The Gobelin carpets are made of wool, the tapestry 
and paintings of silk. This is truly an eye and hand 
work ; no machinery is employed. In the seven- 
teenth century Colbert, a strong supporter of all in- 
dustrial enterprises, caused the manufactory of the 
Gobelins to be purchased by the government and 
carried on. It proved a failure, and it was then con- 
verted into a special establishment for the exclusive 
use of the reigning family. Colbert was the minister 
of Louis XIV. The French Gobelins are superior to 
the Flemish. 

Many of the Gobelins from the palace of St. Cloud 
were saved by the thoughtfulness of Prince Napo- 
leon, who had them removed to a place of safety 
before the palace was burnt. 

One of the greatest curiosities in the mechanical 
art is the famous clock of Beauvais, on exhibition at 
the Palais de l'lndustrie (the Industrial Palace). It 
indicates the rise and fall of the tides, the barometical 
state of the atmosphere, the rising and setting of the 
sun and moon. Eclipses can be calculated by this 
wonderful invention. The time never varies. The 
signs of the zodiac are all represented and explained 
scientifically by the exhibitor. 

A most graphic scene is illustrated of the Day of 
Judgment. A figure personifying our Saviour is 



104 France and her People. 

seated on a miniature throne on the top of the clock; 
the pure and holy are brought up to be judged by 
one of the saints ; they are then consigned to Para- 
dise and the wicked to Hell, which is illustrated in - 
glowing colors, the flames issuing through the win- 
dows, and you behold the poor creatures writhing 
in agony. 

Every hour the cock comes out, crows three times, 
emblematic of Peter denying his Lord and Master. 
It took five years to make this clock. It has no 
equal, except the world-renowned clock at Stras- 
bourg. It is fifteen feet high. Its final destination 
is in the cathedral at Beauvais. 

The Diorama of Solferino is only a few steps from 
the Palace of Industry, on the Champs Elysees. 
After ascending a few steps we were ushered into a 
circular building that covers a space of 1500 square 
yards. The doorkeeper is a wounded soldier. To 
him we paid the admittance fee (forty cents, two 
francs). The sight that meets one's gaze on entering 
surpasses description. It is difficult to realize that 
those distant hills, wide plains, almost limitless hori- 
zon, streams, valleys, and towns are an illusion, con- 
structed with marvellous accuracy. The entire can- 
vass is a living scene. The Emperor and his staff 
are perfect, except motion. The soldiers wending 
their way up to the fort, and every point, are admira- 
bly executed. At our feet were scattered in disorder 



France and her People. 105 

broken carriage wheels, old uniforms, cannon balls, 
battered equipments, and tattered garments ; here a 
bayonet, there a knapsack. A veteran explained the 
scene with patriotic eloquence to a crowd of sympa- 
thetic listeners. 

This battle scene represents a brilliant military 
spectacle, and aids in inspiring the martial feeling 
that exists in every French breast. They are a war- 
loving people ; military glory is their delight ; their 
proudest shrine is the tomb of that illustrious war- 
rior Napoleon I. 

The Champs Elysees, by three o'clock in the 
afternoon, are thronged by a mixed crowd, all seek- 
ing pleasure, pastime and diversion. If there is a 
spot on earth where it can be found I have concluded 
it is here. This wide avenue has a wooded extent 
of half a mile, laid out with walks on both sides of 
the street, and intersected by cross walks in all 
directions. 

The origin of this lovely place is due to Marie de 
Medicis, who caused it to be laid out for a pleasure- 
ground and planted with lime-trees and elms. Easy 
spring chairs are provided for the thousand; they 
are scattered in all directions. We halted to see 
what constituted the apparent centre of attraction ; it 
was simply a barouche drawn by four goats, driven 
by children, who for the sum of two cents were en- 
titled to half a mile drive, the driver always walking 



106 France and her People. 

beside them. Next in course came a large circular 
arena for equestrian performances, covered with a 
gaily painted roof, supported by iron posts ; a firm 
iron pole in the centre, from which extended twelve 
long arms which turned on a pivot. They were 
terminated by wooden horses, saddled and bridled ; 
for two cents the children could ride four times 
round; boys and girls alike join in all the sports. 

The conductor is jocular, and amuses his fair 
riders ; each one is presented on mounting with a 
steel rod, resembling a steel for sharpening knives, 
which is carried erect ; they endeavor as they pass 
to catch at each turn a steel ring which the conductor 
presents in an elevated position ; some of the expert 
ones never failed to gain the prize. The conductor 
starts from Paris, passes St. Cloud, and by the time 
he has taken them to Versailles the excursion is 
ended. 

The costume of three children, two girls and a 
boy, attracted great attention. They were furnished 
each with a small tin bucket and wooden spade, 
purchased no doubt from a stall near by, for they 
abound, filled with toys for the juveniles. The poor 
children were busy digging in the sand ; they wore 
sky-blue silk dresses, white silk gloves, blue kid gai- 
ters, white silk hose, white chip hats, trimmed with 
blue to match, and richly ornamented by a long blue 
plume. The boy's costume was blue velvet of a 



France and her People. 107 

darker hue. I inquired of several who these chil- 
dren were. "Americans, of course," a lady replied. 
" I have lived in Paris five years, and I never saw 
any one but those people dress their children in such 
a theatrical style when they come to play in the sand 
and enjoy childish romps and games." I never 
asked again to what nation an overdressed child out 
of place belonged in France. 

Onward we walked. Another crowd blocked the 
way ; this was only a miniature theatre, where a bur- 
lesque was carried on between dolls, caricatures re- 
sembling Punch and Judy of London. These silly 
sights amuse the loitering population, composed of 
boys and girls, boot-blacks, street-sweepers, and a 
very promiscuous assemblage. No one pays except 
what he chooses ; a man goes round with a hat, 
and those who like can drop in a cent. There are 
several of these theatres, all in the same style. 

We walked on until we stood in front of the beau- 
tiful Palais de l'Elysees, erected in 17 18, enlarged 
and rendered most superb by Napoleon III. During 
the reign of Louis XV. this was Madame de Pom- 
padour's home. In 18 15 the Emperor Napoleon, 
and afterwards the Duke of Wellington, the Emperor 
Alexander, and finally the President of the Republic 
resided here. 

On a bright day in spring time the Emperor, staff, 
and retinue were crossing the bridge of the Place de 



ioS^ France and her People. 

la Concorde on their return from a military review 
on the Champ de Mars ; a line of policemen extend- 
ing to the gates of the palace was stationed on both 
sides of the bridge. The crowd was dense, leaving 
just room for the military to pass. Just as the Em- 
peror left the bridge, a lady in black was observed to 
rush through the lines, and suddenly halt exactly in 
front of his Majesty; bowing, she extended at arm's 
length a letter. The Emperor bowed ; accepted the 
letter, raised his hat, and rode on ; this was the work 
of a moment. 

Two of the policemen sprang forward, seized the 
lady by the arm, informed her in a loud, angry tone 
that she had no business there. " Retire, gentle- 
men," she said ; " I follow your advice with pleasure. 
My work was done before you commenced yours. I 
have endeavored by many means to approach our 
Emperor, but I have always been baffled, opposed, 
disappointed by those who surround his Majesty. I 
was determined, at all hazard, to make the effort. I 
am now satisfied." She succeeded admirably. Her 
petition was granted ; by a little defiance of police- 
men and strong moral courage she gained her pen- 
sion, which fell into good soil, and was not wasted. 
I could relate many circumstances of the same na- 
ture, showing that the Emperor, in all cases, when 
the applicants were worthy, assisted or rewarded 
them. 



CHAPTER XI. 

St. Denis — Jardin des Plantes — Washing — Anecdote of a waiter — 
St. Geneviere, or Pantheon. 

| j^RIENDS called for us. In a few moments 
-^ we were hastening to the railway station; 
tickets bought, seats taken, and soon we were pro- 
pelled on at a rapid rate to St. Denis, we naturally 
supposed, having purchased our fare to that station. 
Our attention being solely absorbed in ourselves, it 
was not until Epinay was called that we discovered 
St. Denis was left far in the distance. We could 
not retrace our steps, no train stopping here for 
two hours. 

We thought it best to make some exploration, 
and find out if anything curious or entertaining was 
to be seen. During our forced stay, after a short 
descent, by a flight of stone steps, imbedded in the 
soil, with a hawthorn hedge on each side, forming 
a natural banister, a smooth, wide avenue lay before 
us, with a border of stately trees, leading to the 
town of Epinay, and one mile distant. A highly 
cultivated plain extended in all directions. We 
hailed the approach of the train with no sorrow. 

Ten minutes, and we were at St. Denis station. 
10 109 



no France and her People, 

A long dusty walk brought us within the portals of 
the Cathedral of St. Denis, the spot where Henry 
IV. abjured the Protestant faith. This is the oldest 
burial-ground of royalty in France. Until 1789, 
nearly all the ashes of the kings of France, from 
Clovis to Louis XVIII. , were entombed in this vast 
sepulchre. The origin of this church is singular, 
and may be new to many persons. St. Denis, who 
was beheaded at Montmartre, walked after his exe- 
cution, with his head under his arm, as far as this 
spot. Here he halted and gave up the ghost. A 
tomb, and then a chapel, were erected above his 
ashes. St. Geneviere, the patroness of Paris in 496, 
was the means of having this church enlarged. 
The original edifice was demolished, but during the 
reign of Charlemagne, in 775, was finished and con- 
secrated. In 1 140 it was again destroyed by Suger, 
Abbot of St. Denis. Only the towers and porch 
remain ; the other parts of the building were built 
in 1231 and 1281. 

In 1787 this church, of wonderful design and 
superb architecture, excited the rage of the mob ; the 
stained glass was destroyed, all the tombs opened 
and their contents scattered. A reckless soldier cut 
the hair from the head of Henry IV. and made him- 
self a mustache. The debris consisted of relics of 
saints, church plate, and paintings ; they were con- 
veyed to Paris, and preserved by M. Le Noir, the 



France and her People. 1 1 1 

founder of a museum. For twelve years it was 
desecrated by being converted into a market-house. 

The Emperor Napoleon I. commenced its restor- 
ation ; his plans were frustrated, but it has been 
accomplished by the Emperor Napoleon III. The 
vaults, our guide informed us, contain a mass of 
royal bones, taken by Louis XVIII. from the ditches 
into which they had been thrown ; also the burnt 
remains of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, 
and others of his family, and placed them under the 
altar. Here are also the tombs of Dagobert, 
Clovis, Louis XII. and his queen Anne, designed 
in 1527. A host of others could be enumerated 
and described, such as the tomb of Catherine de 
Medicis and Henry II. her husband, did time 
permit. I may here state that Charlemagne, at 
his own request, was buried in the Cathedral at 
Aix-la-Chapelle, and not at St. Denis. The guide 
was loquacious ; he told me he was drummer-boy 
at Moscow, and saw that city in flames. With 
great feeling and national pride he exclaimed : " I 
shall never behold our beautiful Paris in flames." 
I have often since thought of the old guide of St. 
Denis, and trust, for his sake, that he now sleeps 
quietly in his own soil. 

The Imperial House, under the patronage of the 
Empress Eugenie, devoted to the education of the 
daughters of the members of the Legion of Honor, 



H2 France and her People. 

numbers four hundred, — an admirable institution, 
well organized. The educational advantages are of 
a superior description. They dress entirely in 
black ; the discipline is of a military character. 
This educational establishment was founded by 
Napoleon I. in 1801. It can accommodate 500 
pupils. 

One of our party suggested halting again, as we 
were in front of another church. I said : " O Mr. 

, have the kindness not to mention any other 

church this day." He replied : " I mean that build- 
ing," pointing to a respectable looking pastry-cook's 
window. No one objected ; the air, the hour, 
had proved a tonic. The ranks of delicacies were 
thinned, and the shop-keeper's till was heavier on 
our exit. 

After a pleasant trip we arrived in Paris, which 
looked radiant with life and light; none of the 
shops close until ten o'clock in the evening, except 
the warehouses. For variety we took seats in an 
omnibus. A lady of our party, Mrs. G., remarked 
calmly : " I was sure some one crowded me at the 
depot." Her husband said : " Why did you not 
give the alarm? " She replied : " What good v/ould 
that do when my purse was gone ? " She bore the 
loss philosophically; the amount was only sixty 
francs. 

The Jardin des Plantes (the zoological gardens) 



France and her People. 113 

came next in course. These pleasure-grounds are 
intersected by three broad avenues bordered with 
an unbroken shade of lime and chestnut trees, 
affording shelter from sun and rain to hundreds that 
daily congregate in this retreat. We passed many 
groups, all enjoying the fresh air, and nature's roof 
above them. The gleesome mirth of childhood 
resounded in all directions. In many circles the 
entire family were present, — the grandame knitting, 
the sedate matron darning and patching her week's 
clothes, and the younger members embroidering; 
none idle. 

The perfume from thousands of choice flowers 
was gently wafted by each passing breeze. This is 
one of the most delightful promenades in Paris. 
The flower gardens are scientifically cultivated and 
arranged ; the species are denoted by painted labels ; 
the poisonous plants by black labels, the kitchen 
plants and herbs by green labels, the medicinal 
plants by red, those used for chemical and dyeing 
by blue, and ornamental plants by yellow labels. 
A nursery of forest-trees are ready for transplanting. 

Upon an eminence there is a pretty pavilion, 

affording a quiet spot for the weary to rest; on a 

pillar of the pavilion, under the sun-dial, is this 

inscription: "Horas non numcro nisi sercnas " (I 

count none but the bright hours). The first cedar 

ever seen in France stands here ; it was presented in 
10* 



H4 France and her People. 

1734 by an English physician, Dr. Collinson. It is 
eleven feet in circumference, and by its magnitude 
attracts great attention. The museum is four hun- 
dred feet long, and contains a large and complete 
collection of stuffed quadrupeds and zoophytes. 
Of this department we took only a cursory view. 

The zoological garden ("menagerie") is com- 
posed of a diversified and extensive assortment of 
animals, birds and reptiles. In the centre is the 
pentagonal building, divided into rooms for the 
graminivorous animals. The elephants are great 
favorites; a crowd surrounded their yard or enclo- 
sure, as they afford amusement to the visitors by 
their sagacity. Castor and Pollux, two pets of the 
populace, since I saw them have been slaughtered 
and eaten during the siege. 

A Parisian, during the siege, was passing a meat 
shop ; looking up, he beheld an immense quarter of 
meat exposed for sale, "rather large for beef." He 
exclaimed, " I am sure that is one of my old friend's 
sides that has afforded me and my children so 
many hours of fun. What an outrage to devour 
an inoffensive beast. I wish from the depth of 
my soul it was a Prussian instead of Castor or 
Pollux." 

Bears of all colors and sizes amuse the people by 
their capers. The circle of monkeys has many 
admirers ; the children were in raptures with their 



France and her People. 115 

tricks; the deer, gazelle, elk and antelope have 
very pretty rustic cottages, with a wire fence divid- 
ing their respective limits. A narrow channel of 
water flows through the numerous domains; shade 
trees protect the animals from the sun; they are 
lords of their estate, and look most happy and con- 
tented. One is obliged to secure a special permit to 
visit the ferocious animals. The birds, tortoises, 
crocodiles, chameleons and snakes are enclosed in 
sheds and cages, all adapted to the nature of the 
occupant. The geological department is vast, and 
arranged with every facility for visitors who wish to 
make a minute examination. The library is large, 
and contains many volumes upon natural history. 

The washing establishments in Paris are a novel 
sight. We visited one of them. It employed about 
250 women, all in white caps, wooden shoes, coarse 
woollen garments, large blue aprons with capacious 
square pockets; they all held wooden paddles, with 
which they were beating the clothes vigorously. 
The noise of the paddling, the splashing of the 
water, the din of many tongues, all combined, pro- 
duced a horrid discord, and it was a ludicrous sight 
The hall was long, well ventilated, light and cheer- 
ful ; each washer-woman is provided with a station- 
ary tub and a constant supply of water. 

A young girl, our washer-woman's daughter, 
desired to come and live with us. Her parents re- 



1 1 6 France and her People. 

fused, notwithstanding I told them she could earn 
more, and be well cared for. "No, no," her father 
said; "then she would cease to be a scientific 
washer-woman, as all her kindred have been." The 
poor girl pleaded in vain; the one argument was all 
he could adduce, that she must follow her mother's 
avocation. 

Washing is done differently here from other coun- 
tries. The greater part of the inhabitants, that is, 
in the country and villages, wash only once in six 
months ; they all have under-garments by the 
dozen ; the linen is raised, spun, woven and made 
by themselves. Frequently when riding through 
the country I have seen many women washing 
in the pure rivulets and along the river banks, 
singing their native strains, making the air re- 
sound with their harmonious songs. 

Our accustomed room waiter being absent, a 
stranger filled his place. On John's return, I re- 
marked: "I am pleased to see you brushes in hand; 
our apartment is always exactly right when you are 
in charge." With a low bow he said: "Madam, 
how could it be otherwise ? You must be aware 
that all arts, sciences and professions, to be excelled 
in, must be hereditary, consequently the reason why 
my work suits you so well is because my father was 
a garcon de service, my grandfather also, and of 
course the third generation must be perfection 



France and her People. 117 

in the art of service." That was conclusive. I 
was not aware before that such menial service must 
descend from generation to generation to be perfect. 

The church of St. Geneviere, or Pantheon, stands 
upon the highest ground in Paris, and is visible for 
many miles. This edifice occupies the site where 
stood an old church. Here St. Geneviere was in- 
terred in the year 512. It is memorable for having 
been the scene of many terrible and bloody encoun- 
ters, all recorded by able historians. It contains 
the celebrated caveaux vaults, in which many dig- 
nitaries, authors and scientific men are interred — 
Rousseau, Voltaire, Marshal Lannes, La Grange, the 
great mathematician; and scores of others. The 
faintest noise, in the middle of these vaults, pro- 
duces a remarkable echo, loud and clear. An 
ascent of ninety-four steps leads to the gallery. An 
extensive view of the city and country around for 
miles is obtained from this elevated position. The 
painting of the dome, by Gros, repays one for the 
mounting of 328 steps. This composition covers a 
surface of 3256 square feet, representing St. Gene- 
viere receiving homage from Clovis (the first Chris- 
tian king), Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, Louis 
XVII. and Madame Elizabeth, the "martyrs of the 
revolution." 

They are represented emerging through the 
heavenly regions. The idea is original and beauti- 



1 1 8 France and her People. 

ful. At the entrance of this church are booths on 
both sides, where a great variety of articles is of- 
fered for sale, such as paper weights and medals, all 
representing the church and St. Geneviere, pictures 
of saints, and artificial flowers in vases and garlands 
to deck the altars. 

A modern building contains the library, erected in 
1850. Wishing to behold the tomb of St. Gene- 
viere we proceeded to St. Etienne du Mont, a recent 
Gothic building. The exterior is not interesting; 
it was founded in the twelfth century. The interior 
is rich and the decorations elaborate. The sarco- 
phagus is said to be the original depository of the 
saint's remains. Others affirm it is a work of the 
thirteenth century. The chapel containing it is one 
mass of elegant painting and gilding. 

From this visitation of churches we emerged, 
weary of gazing on effigies and the tombs of the 
departed. 



CHAPTER XII. 



Place de la Concorde — Ball at the Tuileries — Opening of the Corps 
Legislatif — Emperor's stables — Catacombs. 

r^HE Place de la Concorde has had several names : 
•*■ Place Louis XIV. ; Place de la Revolution, 
being commenced in 1763 and finished in 1772. 
Since that time the changes have been frequent. 
Nothing could enhance the appearance of this mag- 
nificent square. The four corners are adorned by 
eight pavilions, bearing allegorical figures represent- 
ing the cities of Strasbourg and Lille, Bordeaux and 
Nantes, Marseilles and Brest, Rouen and Lyons. 

In the centre stands the Obelisk de Luxor, brought 
from Egypt in 1833, and placed on a massive pedestal 
by Le Bas, a celebrated engineer. The manner of 
raising it, and all the machinery employed, are en- 
graved on the sides and base. This obelisk is one 
that was placed in front of the temple of Thebes 
during the reign of Sesostris, 1550 years before the 
Christian era. The obelisk is seventy-two feet high, 
and rests on a pedestal fifteen feet, making one hun- 
dred feet in height. 

It is a monolith, a solid block of syenite; and 

119 



120 France and her People. 

is inscribed by three rows of hieroglyphics, ex- 
tolling the merits of King Rameses III. of Egypt, 
known better as Sesostris the Great. It weighs 
more than 120 tons. Eight hundred men were em- 
ployed three months in taking it down from its foun- 
dation at Luxor and conveying it to the Nile. A 
beautiful model of the machinery used for its transit 
to the Nile I saw at the marine department of the 
Museum at the Louvre. It was presented to Louis 
Philippe by Mehemed Ali, Pacha of Egypt, in return 
for services rendered to his Majesty. The spot 
where it is situated has been saturated by the blood 
of thousands. This was the place of the guillotine. 
In 1793 Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette were be- 
headed on this now charming spot. In 1770 a most 
distressing calamity occurred here during a display 
of fireworks in honor of the nuptials of Louis and 
Marie Antoinette. An alarm of fire was raised, 
caused by the explosion of fireworks ; in the sudden 
frantic outburst of fear 1200 persons were injured. 

In 1848 the proclamation of the Republic was 
celebrated here with every demonstration of solem- 
nity and rejoicing. On the north of the obelisk are 
two richly carved fountains, with allegorical subjects, 
one dedicated to the sea, the other to river naviga- 
tion. The lower basin stretches fifty feet in diame- 
ter, above which rises two other basins twenty feet 
and twelve feet in diameter respectively. The lower 



France and her People. 121 

basin is surrounded by marine deities, Tritons and 
Nereids holding dolphins which spout water into the 
second basin, the figures of which represent the 
Pacific Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, genii em- 
blematical of four kinds of fishery, common, pearl, 
coral, and shell ; one of the figures personifies the 
Rhine and the Rhone. The genii are personifica- 
tions of corn, wine, fruit, and flowers. Nothing 
more beautiful could be constructed than these su- 
perb fountains ; and when viewed by gaslight, this 
place resembles a vast moor covered with myriads 
of fire-flies sporting in the moonbeams. This effect 
is produced by a distant view of the thousands of 
carriage-lamps flitting in every direction. Along the 
balustrades which enclose the square are placed 
twenty lofty rostral columns, which serve as cande- 
labras. The carriage causeways are bordered with 
forty ornamental lamp-posts. The northern boun- 
dary of this square is the Rue de Rivoli ; east the 
garden of the Tuileries ; south the Seine ; and west 
the Champs Elysees. There is no parallel in the 
world to this square. By taking a position in the 
centre, the views in all directions are strikingly beau- 
tiful. What could surpass the prospect of the Champs 
Elysees with the view of the Arc de Triomphe in the 
distance? Turn and you behold the inimitable gar- 
den and palace of the Tuileries ; turn again and face 

the north, and you behold the Rue Royale, with that 
11 



122 France and her People. 

splendid temple the Madeleine and the Hotel Crillon 
(private), and the Minister of Marine's mansion. The 
southern view is the most varied. You have the bridge 
bearing the same name ; and diectly opposite the 
Palais du Corps Legislatif — all magnificent buildings. 
Add to this the varied scenes continually passing ; 
and if any person can imagine a more striking, live- 
lier, imposing sight, I would be thankful to have the 
locality pointed out to me. 

An official ball at the palace of the Tuileries is 
similar to the presentation at any Court, or the Pre- 
sident's levees. By applying two weeks in advance 
at the ambassador's office of your country, your 
names will be entered for an invitation. These balls 
are always crowded, and less agreeable than private 
assemblages. We had the honor and pleasure of 
being numbered among the guests invited to an inti- 
mate soiree given by the Emperor. 

The saloons were most elegantly decorated. Go- 
belins and paintings adorned the walls, and the ceilings 
were made gay by the artistic touches of scenes from 
nature ; and when illumined by thousands of lights 
a more beautiful or enchanting spectacle I could not 
portray. The company assembled at ten o'clock. 
In a few moments after the Emperor entered ; then 
passed from one group to another until all were cor- 
dially saluted, the company all standing. A few 
moments were allowed for conversation, then the 



France and her People. 123 

orchestra poured forth a flood of dulcet strains that 
produced a simultaneous effect, and, with few excep- 
tions, all were enjoying the waltz. 

When I beheld the Emperor participating in the 
giddy waltz, he appeared as youthful and his step as 
light as the youngest person present. Without the 
least disparagement to any, I must confess his Ma- 
jesty was the most graceful waltzer on the floor. 

Nothing could have been added to the banquet, — 
fruits of many climes adorned the tables, and flowers 
lent their fragrance to the festive scene. The Em- 
peror and suit left the saloon at one o'clock A. m., the 
music ceased, and the company retired. The remem- 
brance of that evening will long remain. 

This 29th of November, 1869, has been a lively 
day, and one looked forward for eagerly. The Corps 
Legislatif has been opened. At an early hour the 
populace commenced to assemble ; the entire length 
of the Rue de Rivoli, from the Rue de Louvre to the 
garden of the Tuileries, was a sea of heads. A space 
in the centre of the street, sufficiently wide to allow 
a carriage to pass, was kept clear by the mounted 
"Garde de Paris" (Guards of Paris). At twelve 
o'clock the cortege commenced passing, and entered 
those arched gateways that lead into the Place du 
Carrousel, the entrance to the Louvre, which con- 
tains a superb hall appropriated for public ceremo- 
nies. It has an elevated platform, a balcony for 



124 France and her People. 

ladies and invited guests. The decorations are all 
new and just completed. 

The retinue and carriages were gorgeous beyond 
description. It would be impossible to enumerate 
the various styles. Suffice it to say, they were of 
every prismatic hue ; each equipage and the attend- 
dants' dress were the same color, every carriage hav- 
ing two footmen, and many four outriders, the 
coachmen and footmen in powdered wigs and queues, 
brilliant satin coats, and breeches with knee-buckles 
trimmed with lace or fringe, slippers, and white 
stockings. As they dashed past in rapid succession 
they resembled a panorama from an enchanted land 
in the Cinderella style. 

At one o'clock precisely the Emperor stepped 
from the Tuileries to traverse the open square which 
leads to the Louvre, named the Place du Carrousel 
and Place de Napoleon III. At that instant the 
guns at the Invalides discharged their terrific thun- 
derings, though their vibration was less apparent, 
caused by the deafening peals of the assembled 
crowd, cheering most vociferously at every step his 
Majesty advanced, until he disappeared within the 
Louvre ; the guns then ceased. 

The Emperor's speech occupied fifteen minutes. 
Then the splendid cavalcade again dashed by over 
the same route to their respective destinations. The 
cheering, as each carriage passed, was boisterous in 



France and her People. 125 

proportion to the popularity of the occupant. Many 
predicted an outbreak, or a serious riot; but all 
passed off quietly, the vast multitude dispersing with 
only demonstrations of applause. The speech was 
satisfactory. Five thousand ladies made application 
to be auditors ; only two hundred and fifty gained 
admittance ; they were decked in rich costumes pre- 
pared for the occasion. 

The day ended with a deluging rain, in which we 
were overtaken in the Champs Elysees. We had 
lingered admiring the lovely wallflowers, emitting 
their perfume in the piercing cold and chilling wintry 
blast. They are the hardy winter flowers that alone 
relieve the eye from the evergreens that surround 
them. They heed neither the icy embrace nor the 
snow-white mantle that covers their orange-tinted 
corollas ; but they expand their tiny petals to the 
delight of the fur-draped promenaders, who, cheered 
by their fair forms, imagine it is not cold, or stern 
winter does not reign. 

With a permit from General B., I formed one of a 
party to visit the Emperor's stables, which are situ- 
ated under the Louvre. In point of neatness, com- 
pactness, and convenience they could not be sur- 
passed. Every possible means for the health and 
comfort of the noble beasts has been studied; each 
horse has his name painted in distinct letters over 

his stall, which is built of stained wood (ash). The 
11* 



126 France and her People. 

partitions between the stalls are low ; the manger, 
post, and rack are of the same wood ; the floor is 
stone, which is drilled in divers shapes, forming 
squares, triangles, and ovals. The horses are all 
equipped alike, with fine blankets, heavy russet bri- 
dles, and hitched by steel chains to the posts. Each 
stall has a window, and a heavy straw mat for the 
horses to stand upon. 

The carriage horses are large, displaying great 
muscular strength. A pair of black horses that were 
presented by the Czar drew forth the admiration of 
our party. Mr. M., of New York, said, " I thought I 
knew what a pair of magnificent horses were. I con- 
fess, these surpass any I ever saw." That remark 
spoke volumes in favor of the steeds. 

A beautiful creature stood pawing restlessly — a 
native of Egypt, brought to the Emperor by the 
Empress this autumn. The horse, Buckingham, the 
Emperor rode at Magenta, and Ajax at Soferino, are 
noble specimens of fine steeds. Among the whole 
number (three hundred) there is not an inferior ani- 
mal. They are exercised daily. Our intelligent 
guide, with cap in hand bearing the ever visible letter 
N, politely requested us to pass into the riding-hall. 
After crossing the court-yard, and ascending a flight 
of wide marble steps, we entered a wide doorway, 
over which are three horses' heads and fore legs in 
bronze, full size, a masterly piece of work. It was 



France and her People. 127 

placed here in 1861, when this part of the building 
was altered into this spacious hall by Napoleon III. 
for the purpose of training and exercising young 
horses. Here the Prince Imperial received his first 
lessons in riding. The hall is long, with four rows 
of pillars through the centre. It has an elevated 
balcony for the Imperial family and friends. It is 
well ventilated ; great attention is paid in this coun- 
try to ventilation ; the floor is covered with sawdust, 
packed, and then rolled smooth. Tricolor flags deck 
the walls. A large clock hangs opposite the en- 
trance door, that every one, the guide said, might 
time the horses themselves. 

Next in course is the harness, saddle, and equip- 
ping department. Every article is manufactured 
from the best leather, and mounted with heavy plate. 
The glass cases contain bridles, bits, spurs, and all 
necessary tools required in such an establishment. 
The saddles for state occasions are red velvet, em- 
broidered with gold ; one, a gift from the Viceroy of 
Egypt, is elaborately trimmed. The saddle pre- 
sented by the Czar is blue velvet, ornamented with 
silver. They are all fine specimens of skill and taste. 

The last department was that containing the car- 
riages and vehicles. Of these there was a great va- 
riety. The state carriages are elegant. The open 
carriages for the Bois dc Boulogne, the ones for 
evening driving, the ones for excursions in the coun- 



128 France mid her People. 

try, are all manufactured with great care, and no ex- 
pense spared to have them models for the world. 
The carriage belonging to the little Prince is white, 
lined with white satin, curtains and all to correspond. 
It was presented to him when a mere child, and is 
still untarnished and perfectly new. 

At the entrance to the Catacombs old women stand 
furnished with wax-candles, which are inserted in a 
square piece of stiff pasteboard, with a rough thin 
handle of wood, to light us through this charnel- 
house. At the exit a number of children stood 
awaiting the donation of the wax ends. The pas- 
sage leading to the entrance is narrow, allowing only 
space for two to walk abreast. Thus we passed 
along systematically, each one presenting his or her 
permit. Then commenced our downward course ; 
the narrowness forced us to proceed in single file 
down those stone steps ; it appeared to me as if the 
terminus would never come. 

They are the most spiral stairs I ever descended. 
I was quite dizzy, but to halt was impossible with 
such a living mass forming the rear. Thoughts of 
being crushed to death impelled me forward, and to 
advance was to wait until those in front had cleared 
a step. I was indeed thankful when I stepped into 
the soft soil, the beginning of a series of galleries 
which had been cut through the earth, similar to 
collieries, and supported by stone pillars or abut- 



France and her People. 129 

ments. There are in all sixty-five entrances to the 
Catacombs. The principal one we entered at the 
former Barriere de l'Enfer (Barrier of Hell), in the 
Rue de la Tombe. Two hundred acres at least are 
covered by the Catacombs. 

This vast sepulchre of human remains we visited in 
company with two hundred persons anxious to be- 
hold this unknown Golgotha. Permits to visit these 
caverns are issued several times during the year. 
We were fortunate in having friends that procured 
us entrance tickets to all the places of note. The 
Catacombs are formed in vast quarries under the city 
of Paris, from which the stone was taken for build- 
ing purposes. They had been excavated a long time 
ago, being forgotten except by the city authorities. 

In 1777 a great panic was caused by several houses 
in the Faubourg St. Jacques and St. Germain having 
fallen or sunk into those quarries. They endeavored 
to prop up the ground. It was ordered that the 
contents of the Cemetery of the Innocents and other 
burial grounds should be deposited there. In April, 
1786, the vast caverns were consecrated, and the 
dead were immediately taken by night, not without 
a funeral rite, and all deposited in one heterogeneous 
mass, the bones of each cemetery being kept sepa- 
rate. 

In 1 8 10 the Emperor Napoleon I. commenced the 
orderly arrangement of the remains of the departed. 



130 France a?zd her People. 

Ventilation and drainage were introduced ; new pil- 
lars to support the upper parterre have been erected; 
and excavations have been made .to admit more air. 
During the Reign of Terror thousands were thrown 
into these cavities. In the present reign, in conse- 
quence of the great improvements and the opening 
of new streets, old cemeteries had to be closed, as 
space was required; all the bones were carefully 
gathered and conveyed to this nation's sepulchre. 
No future project can ever require these caverns; 
the contents will be allowed to rest undisturbed until 
the last trumpet shall sound, then these dry remains 
of mortality will come forth a living army. 

The main gallery is a mile long. After this tire- 
some walk we were ushered into the octagonal ves- 
tibule. This is the passage to the galleries (they 
cannot be called rooms) ; they are lined with mil- 
lions of human bones, an appalling sight, which 
are regularly arranged with great care, all the skulls 
in separate rows, thus relieving the monotony of the 
continuous array of thigh bones, arms, and legs. In 
many places the skulls are formed into crosses. One 
cannot conceive a more hideous spectacle, — the eye- 
less, fleshless, toothless skulls illuminated by the 
faint glimmerings of the candles' feeble rays. 

I noticed that a number of skulls had teeth, which 
is no improvement to the horrid craniums. A lady, 
unobserved by the guide, deliberately seized a tooth, 



France and her People. 131 

shook it from the bony socket, and with joyful haste 
consigned the treasure to her pocket: She was an 
antiquarian of a peculiar taste. The large bones are 
heaped so as to form a front wall, behind which 
those of smaller size are thrown. There are many 
appropriate and beautiful inscriptions upon white 
marble slabs, in Latin and French, from Horace, 
Livy, Lamartine, and the Bible, all reminding the 
passers-by of their frailty and certain dissolution of 
the body ; and others invoking all mankind to raise 
their thoughts from earth to heaven. These are 
placed upon the stone spaces that intervene between 
the fleshless deposits, about one hundred feet apart. 

All the additions to the Catacombs, during the 
present Emperor's reign, are dated, and the name of 
the cemetery from where they were exhumed painted 
plainly. 

Suddenly we stood within a chapel formed entirely 
of human bones, the ornamental parts being com- 
posed of skulls, — a clear fountain, bearing the name 
of the Samaritan, whose waters are carried off by a 
subterraneous aqueduct. Water never looked purer 
to me or more refreshing than it did within this 
sepulchre. Gold fish were placed in this fountain ; 
they lived, but never spawned. 

I was pleased with the decorum and dignified be- 
havior of our company, many of them being medical 
students. From this class of our visitors jokes, if not 



132 France mid her People. 

profane and cynical remarks, might have been ex- 
pected ; but they all appeared awed by the sombre 
picture of our certain state. 

As I passed from skull to skull I could not refrain 
from wondering what lovely girl, with flowing ring- 
lets, soft eyes of blue, and winning grace, had inha- 
bited that loathsome skull ; or what gallant officer, 
or what venerated priest, or what captivating actress, 
that could hold an audience spell-bound, or what 
smiling happy children who had sported on the 
smooth lawns, or chased butterflies in the Bois de 
Boulogne, or what senator or judge, whose eloquence 
had resounded through the courts and halls of jus- 
tice. Thus I mused, asking myself to which of these 
could they have belonged. Then I gazed until I 
was sure that those lustreless skulls had formed 
many gallant brigades, led on by dauntless, dashing 
officers whose bones are piled beside them. Then I 
shuddered when I thought that in a few years the 
bodies of half the inhabitants of beautiful Paris would 
be arrayed in a similar chainwork, and be for ages 
exhibited to the thoughtless sons of men, who alike 
will all be hastening to some unknown catacomb. 
What a joyous signal when the guide announced the 
course was finished. Fifty-six steps mounted, and we 
inhaled the pure air. We came out a long distance 
from our descent, and in a new quarter of Paris. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Hotel des Invalides — Tomb of Napoleon I. — Anniversary of the day 
the Emperor's remains were deposited at the Invalides. 

~"*HE Hotel des Invalides was commenced in 
•*■ 1 67 1, and completed in 1675. Louis XIV. 
founded this institution for disabled soldiers who had 
served thirty years, and were entitled to a life home. 
The accommodations are for five thousand, two 
thousand being in the building at this time. The 
dormitories and kitchens are on the same plan as the 
barracks. Each inmate receives daily a loaf of good 
bread and a bottle of wine, and monthly an allow- 
ance of spending money ; though small, it is all they 
require. The infirmary is under the charge of, and 
attended by twenty-five Sisters of Charity of the 
order of St. Vincent de Paul. 

The library was founded by Napoleon I., and con- 
tains 30,000 volumes and some fine paintings. Na- 
poleon Bonaparte crossing the St. Bernard is a 
splendid picture (a copy of David's). There is also 
an equestrian statuette of Marshal Turenne and the 
cannon ball which caused his death, in 1675, near 
Baden-Baden. The council chamber is adorned with 



12 



jj 



134 France and her People. 

drawings of banners and flags, and a chamber adjoin- 
ing contains the portraits of the Marshals of France. 

The front of this vast edifice is six hundred feet in 
length, and has three pavilions ; at the lateral cor- 
ners of the pavilions are four groups of statues in 
bronze, emblematical of four conquered nations — 
Germany, Spain, Burgundy, and Holland. The 
building is three stories, the dormal windows are 
singularly constructed of military trophies in stone, 
surmounted by helmets. The " Cour d'Honneur" 
(the Court of Honor), which has an open arcade all 
around, leads to the chapel. In this court the mili- 
tary drill takes place at noon by the young soldiers 
or cadets from the military school, which is situated 
near the entrance to the dome of the Invalides. It 
was founded in 175 1 by Louis XV., and is a fine, 
flourishing institution. 

A portion of the terrace is laid out in small gar- 
dens, which the invalids cultivate and plant with 
flowers and shrubs, as their taste dictates. Several 
of these garden beds could, with propriety, be called 
shrines, as they have small statues of Napoleon I. 
placed in these plots; his memory these veterans 
worship. Eighty here still survive their chief. The 
gate of the entrance is surrounded on three sides by 
dry moats covered with a fresh verdure, which is 
approached by the Esplanade des Invalides, a superb 
avenue of ancient trees which form a border to this 



France and her People. 135 

walk. A small park, well provided with seats, af- 
fords the inmates a cool, pleasant place to smoke and 
rest. The guns used for firing salutes upon grand 
occasions are eighteen in number. 

The Champ de Mars is a large open space situ- 
ated in front of the military school, and has a sur- 
rounding of trees. Here all the reviews and parades 
take place. This field is at least a thousand yards 
in length and seven hundred yards wide ; the last 
time we visited this field of Mars it presented a lively, 
active scene. It was previous to the first regiments 
leaving for the seat of war. It was covered with 
tents, ammunition and baggage wagons. Many of 
the soldiers were cooking, some washing along the 
river shore, others exercising in athletic sports ; all 
appearing happy and as unconcerned as if they were 
assembled for a day of recreation. Poor fellows ! 
Their happiness proved brief; these were their final 
halcyon days, as few of the number we saw ever 
came back. 

The tomb of Napoleon I. is the most gorgeous, 
imposing sight I ever beheld. Often when I have 
stood beside this memorial of France's greatest and 
most beloved warrior, have I thought that even this 
magnificent emblem of love did not really satisfy the 
admiration — I will say the veneration — that this na- 
tion entertains for the departed Napoleon. They 
would have him canonized if they could, and even 



136 France and her People, 

that would not express their feelings of respect and 
veneration. 

The interior of the church is circular, with the 
branches of a Greek cross extending in the direction 
of the four cardinal points, each having three lofty 
arched entrances ; one faces the centre of the church, 
and is occupied by a circular parapet surrounding 
the crypt ; above this rises the dome, which consists 
of a square mass 180 feet in breadth, which supports 
a gilded globe and cross, the summit of which is 320 
feet above the pavement. The dome rests on four 
main arches ; in the pendentives are paintings of the 
four Evangelists. The interior is gorgeously painted 
with portraits, medallions, and statues, commencing 
with the first French emperors and kings, and ending 
with Louis XIV. On either side of the high altar 
winding staircases descend to the crypt, which con- 
tains the tomb of Napoleon I. 

The entrance to the vault is from the back of the 
high altar. The tomb is flanked by two sarcophagi, 
having for their base plinths, and surmounted by two 
Corinthian columns, crowned with the segmentary 
abutments, on which are inscribed the names of Du- 
roc and Bertrand, the Emperor's faithful friends ; the 
former lost his life at the battle of Bautzen, in 1813 ; 
Bertrand died in 1844. He was the constant com- 
panion of the Emperor, shared his victories, and 
suffered in his defeats ; he remained with him in 



France and her People. 137 

his captivity at St. Helena, and afterwards had the 
mournful pleasure of beholding his remains depo- 
sited in their final resting-place, the Dome of the 
Invalides. 

A bronze door leads to the crypt. Over it, on a 
slab of black, are these words : " I desire that my 
ashes repose on the borders of the Seine, in the 
midst of the French people, whom I have loved so 
well." This is inscribed from the Emperor's will. 

The crypt consists of a circular excavation twenty 
feet in depth and thirty-six feet in diameter. The 
walls are composed of polished slabs of granite, 
adorned by ten bas-reliefs by the celebrated Simart, 
representing the Restoration of Public Order, the 
Concordat, the Reform Administration, the State 
Council, the Code, the University, Chamber of Fi- 
nance, the Encouragement of Commerce and Indus- 
try, Public Works, and the Legion of Honor. A 
gallery running under the altar leads to the crypt, 
lighted by funeral lamps of bronze — two colossal 
bronze female giants, one bearing a globe, the other 
a sceptre and crown. These are Caryatides. This is 
the historic explanation of them : " The Athenians 
had been long at war with the Caryans ; the latter 
being vanquished and their wives led captive, the 
Greeks, to perpetuate the event, erected trophies in 
the figure of women dressed in Caryatic style, which 

were used to support entablatures." 
12* 



138 France and her People, 

The pavement is most appropriately decorated 
with a crown of laurels in mosaic, within which, in 
a blank circle, are inscribed the names of Napoleon's 
brilliant victories — Rivoli, Pyramids, Marengo, Aus- 
terlitz, Jena, Friedland, Wagram, Moskowa. Be- 
tween the twelve colossal figures, emblematical of 
victory, which stand against the pilasters facing the 
tomb, are sixty flags that had lain for years concealed 
at the Luxembourg. From the centre of the encir- 
cled space rises the sarcophagus ; the cover consists 
of two monoliths of porphyry, most exquisitely 
polished, weighing sixty tons, brought from Lake 
Onega, in Finland, the cost of the transport alone 
being 140,000 francs. 

Immediately above the crypt, at a height of 150 
feet, rises the dome. The faint bluish light admitted 
from above, and the sombre aspect of the crypt and 
its adjuncts, contribute to the solemn grandeur of 
the scene. The height of the tomb is thirteen feet. 
In the gallery which encircles the crypt is a recess con- 
taining the sword the Emperor wore at Austerlitz, the 
insignia he used on state occasions, and the colors 
taken in various battles. At the far end of the 
recess is the statue of the Emperor in his Imperial 
robes. This reliquaire is closed with gold doors, 
and is only visible from the parapet above. The 
chapel contains tombs and sarcophagi. In the 
chapel to the right, as you enter, stands the sarco- 



France and her People, 139 

phagus of Joseph, King of Spain, the eldest brother 
of Napoleon I. It is of black marble, white-veined, 
bearing no inscription except, " Joseph Napoleon." 

To the left is the tomb of King Jerome, also a 
black marble sarcophagus, resting on clawed feet of 
bronze. Back of a small altar is a small sarcopha- 
gus containing the heart of the queen of Westphalia, 
and to the right a monument covering the remains 
of young Prince Jerome. The monuments of Vau- 
ban and Turenne, with their recumbent effigies, the 
former erected in 1807, and the latter removed from 
St. Denis, are situated in the transept near the 
southern entrance ; they are insignificant when com- 
pared with that of the Emperor. 

A vast concourse of people stood gazing with de- 
vout and fixed attention on this mighty sepulchre, 
many of them from the provinces. The exhibition 
days are Mondays and Thursdays, from twelve to 
three in the afternoon, when the same devout interest 
is manifested by the spectators. The weather never 
prevents a crowd from gathering. A great many 
soldiers are always among the multitude. At the 
outside of the gates a great variety of tokens, medals, 
and views of the Dome des Invalides are offered for 
sale. Boxes made from pebbles, in the same man- 
ner as shell-work, look very pretty. The yard and 
walks in the enclosure are strewn with pebbles. 

On the 15th of December, 1869 — this being the 



140 France and her People. 

twenty-ninth anniversary since the remains of the 
Emperor Napoleon I. were deposited upon French 
soil by the Prince de Joinville, and removed in 1861 
to the sarcophagus in the Invalides — a solemn and 
interesting service was celebrated with great pomp. 
At an early hour we entered the chapel; a veteran 
proffered us a seat beside him, which we accepted. 
First entered the beadle, staff in hand, a fine looking 
man, with a three-cornered hat, red vest, green coat, 
brass buttons, knee-breeches, white hose, slippers 
with immense silver buckles. He had charge of all 
the ceremonies ; when the processionists are to halt 
or advance, he brings his staff down with force upon 
the stone floor. 

Then came the inmates, with their arms and flags 
tied with crape ; they ranged themselves on each 
side of the main isle. Then came the governor of 
the institution, the officers of his Majesty's staff, 
in full dress ; then the remaining officers of the 
household, followed by the drum corps of boys with 
muffled drums, and dressed in the same uniform as 
the Imperial Guard. Next the surviving soldiers of 
Napoleon I. — only thirty present — dressed in the 
military uniform of their epoch ; they looked odd. 
A vast audience assisted at this service. 

The pontifical robes were of yellow satin, trimmed 
with lace ; the attendant boys in white. The cere- 
mony was most solemn. What a mournful sight of 



France and her People. 141 

magnificent grandeur ! The chants were sung with 
a low pathos, then sounding deep and full, until the 
walls echoed those never-to-be-forgotten requiems 
from the kneeling multitude. I cast my eyes up- 
wards, and there they rested on those bullet-riddled 
emblems of glory. The flags extend both sides of a 
long nave ; the last flag, with the double eagle, is 
from Sebastopol ; the pure white one waved on the 
Malakoff tower. Three thousand of the Emperor 
Napoleon I.'s flags were burnt on the 30th of March, 
18 14, in the courtyard, by the order of the Minister 
of War, Marshal Clark (Due de Feltre), to prevent 
their falling into the hands of the allies. He was 
obliged to give the order three times before the in- 
valids would allow their cherished trophies to be 
destroyed. Almost all the present flags have been 
taken in the African war by Louis Philippe and Na- 
poleon III. After service the scanty remnant of that 
brilliant army in the " Cour d'Honneur" went 
through the drill, much to the delight of the assem- 
bled multitude. 

Many of the old crippled soldiers push themselves 
about in four-wheeled open carriages. I had a long 
talk with an aged soldier of Napoleon I. I asked 
him, "Did you ever see the Emperor?" " Yes, 
madam, I saw him often ; his glance could never be 
effaced from my memory. I was twenty years old 
in 1 81 5, and now you behold me an old, decrepid 



142 France and her People. 

man." His eyes flashed fire. " Only tell me my 
Emperor calls me in yonder park, I would run, nay 
leap, jump like a boy often summers. Why talk ?" 
he soliloquized. " We have a noble Emperor ; let 
us be contented." 

A sad mistake that the nation had not been of his 
opinion, then Paris would not be a smouldering mass 
of unrecognizable rubbish, nor those pretty rural 
towns that environed the metropolis a chaotic con- 
glomeration of wasted millions. Sad picture. Sad- 
der still are the desolate homes, bereft of fathers and 
sons that can never return. 




CHAPTER XIV. 

Louvre — N6tre Dame, the oldest church in Paris — Furniture wagon 
and movings — Cheap champagne — Victor Noir — Empress — Riot. 

~^HE Louvre. — Were I to attempt a minute de- 
-*■ tail of this building and contents I should fail, 
and weary the reader. A cursory glance will give 
an idea of its vastness, and rare and valuable con- 
tents. I am never satisfied until I can learn the 
date of a building, and by whom founded ; it always 
appears like an introduction. The Louvre occupies 
the site of a former fortress, which Francis I. caused 
to be demolished in 15 14, on the site of which a 
palace was erected, which was occupied by Cath- 
erine de Medicis and her son Charles IX. In 1572 
the princess Margaret of Valois was married to the 
King of Navarre in this palace, and the nuptials of 
Henry IV. were celebrated here. It was a magnifi- 
cent display ; all the Huguenot chiefs assisted at the 
ceremony. 

By the time of Napoleon I. it had fallen into 
decay; but in 1805 it was entirely restored, enlarged 
and embellished. In 1796 several apartments had 
been fitted up, and the treasures of art captured in 

143 



144 France and her People. 

the Italian war placed in it. Since that period the 
destination of the Louvre has not changed. The 
Emperor Napoleon III. has united by galleries the 
Tuileries and the Louvre on both sides ; it forms an 
entire square of building, affording carriage en- 
trances through the massive stone archways. The 
basement is entirely devoted to statuary, from the 
Assyrian and Egyptian down to modern times. In 
the Assyrian museum are the winged bulls with 
human heads from the entrance to the fragments of 
a palace upwards of four thousand years old : they 
are monoliths. It contains also antiquities from 
Asia Minor and Africa. The Greek sculptures and 
the Egyptian and Assyrian museum alone would 
occupy a month of study to understand their outline 
history alone. The upper stories are divided into a 
number of galleries, all filled with the choicest and 
most celebrated paintings, many of them by Reu- 
bens, Van Dyke, Raphael, Vernet, and numberless 
renowned artists. I have seen as many as a hun- 
dred different artists seated at their easels, copying 
these paintings. It is amusing to pass from one to 
the other and examine their talent; many were 
very beautiful copies. 

The Museum of Napoleon III. contains antique 
terra-cottas, being a part of the Campana collection 
brought from the Papal government, consisting of 
twelve thousand specimens. This division occupies 



France and her People. 145 

a number of rooms. The Museum of Napoleon I. 
is very interesting : there we behold the great war- 
rior's tent, bed, table, also his wearing apparel, the 
grey over coat,and three-cornered hat, the pocket 
hankerchief he used a few moments before he died, 
laid on a velvet cushion, under a glass case, also his 
snuff-box, and many valuable and beautiful me- 
mentoes of friendship and love that belonged to 
him. A most complete collection of articles owned 
by the King of Rome, Napoleon II., are also in this 
gallery ; among which are his carriage, bed, saddle, 
and an exquisite round stand made of red coral and 
gold, which was a gift from his aunt Eliza (queen 
of Naples). 

The marine department comprises all the models 
of implements and ships of all descriptions belong- 
ing to the navy, scientific instruments, and a very 
large geographical globe. Thus I could go on 
inspecting and describing this vast and interesting 
collection. There is an insolated saloon, which con- 
tains a valuable assortment of ancient weapons, 
utensils and statuettes. In the centre there is a 
cabinet, in which are preserved keys, seals, rings, 
bracelets in gold and silver, and a fine selection of 
Roman weapons, swords, lances, helmets : these are 
in cabinets ranged along the walls. An idea can be 
formed of the number of annual visitors, by knowing 
that the fund collected for the fee charged to take 
*3 



146 France and her People, 

care of canes, umbrellas and parasols, at two cen- 
times apiece, amounts to $20,000, and yet not one- 
half of the persons who enter carry those articles. 

Notre Dame is situated on the island in the Seine 
termed La Cite. It was commenced in the twelfth 
and completed in the fourteenth century. To me the 
most beautiful portion of the cathedral is the richly 
decorated western fagade, dating from the twelfth 
century. The windows are thirty-six feet in diam- 
eter. The sacristy or treasury is replete with rare 
relics, among which are the jewelled mitre, the 
church service presented by Napoleon I., which is 
gold, and richly gemmed, also the service presented 
by Napoleon III. and the Empress Eugenie. A 
pure gold ivory crucifix, the carving of which is said 
to be the most delicately executed piece of work 
known at the present day. The crown and velvet 
cloak in which the Emperor was crowned, also the 
robes the Pope wore on that occasion, are untar- 
nished. 

The lofty windows of the sacristy are of stained 
glass, representing portraits of the archbishops of 
Paris, and remarkable events which occurred during 
their lives. 

I saw the bullet that caused the death of the 
Archbishop AfTre, who was shot on the 25th of 
June, 1848, by an insurgent, while exhorting the 
people to peace ; we were also shown a fine cast of 



France and her People. 147 

his features. From this point the finest view of 
Paris, with her network of bridges, is obtained; 
being three hundred and sixty-eight steps to the 
platform of the tower, we did not ascend to the top, 
but relied upon the statement of our guide. 

The environs of Notre Dame under the present 
regime have been rebuilt ; the dark unsightly pur- 
lieus, with their wretched haunts of pauperism and 
vice, have given place to rows of stately mansions 
and broad streets, where the sun's rays can dispel 
the dreary aspect that narrow alleys and streets 
convey to the mind. 

The most ancient hospital in Paris, reckoned the 
oldest in Europe, is the Hotel Dieu, situated on the 
border of the Seine, near the southwestern side of 
Notre Dame. It was founded by Clovis II. in 660. 
It is ample in dimensions to accommodate a vast 
number, and is under the most perfect system of 
order and cleanliness ; the medical men that form 
the board are first in their profession. 

The oldest church in Paris is St. Germain des 
Pres. The edifice was dedicated in 557, and was 
connected with a monastery that was founded by 
Childebert about 551. It was nearly destroyed in 
the ninth century by fire. During the revolution 
in 1789 this church was turned into a saltpetre 
manufactory, and by an explosion was much dis- 
figured. Charles X. restored it : and now no 



148 France and her People. 

church in Paris is more richly gilded or gorgeously 
painted. 

The French house-moving wagons are peculiar to 
their country ; they are drawn by three, often four, 
stalwart white horses, with huge wooden collars, 
well protected by fur underneath, and heavy har- 
ness, — the gearing all strong enough to pull a load 
through six feet of wet clay soil. A few words for 
the drivers. They are generally two, dressed neatly 
in blue pantaloons, blouses and blue caps — which 
are terminated by a white or pink tassel hanging 
down their backs — an ample pocket on the left side, 
from which always protrudes a white linen handker- 
chief, boots with the soles thickly studded with 
bright nails, seeming heavy enough for a donkey to 
draw, and a long cowhide, which they crack, crack, 
as they trudge along. 

The wagons are heavy and clumsy, covered with 
white sail-cloth, long and wider than usual ; they 
are very strong and substantially built. It is aston- 
ishing how much they carry and how skilfully their 
loads are packed. In a single load they easily carry 
the contents of a room, the contents of a small 
house, or what would be essential for keeping 
house. They commence by placing all the articles 
on thepavement of the courtyard; then select until 
all is stowed away in this nondescript vehicle. On 
one occasion I watched them pile away a large 



France and her People. 149 

quantity of household furniture, and wondered why 
the timepiece, cut glass vases and statuary stood 
apart, and last. After packing they picked up every 
straw that was left on the street. 

I thought, my good men, how little you under- 
stand the art you practise, when suddenly they 
dropped on their knees, pushed out from under the 
wagon a large coverless box, well filled with shav- 
ings and paper; into this they packed the brittle 
articles, readjusted the box, which swings under- 
neath the wagon with a steady uniform motion, 
receiving no jolt or shock; by this process an 
article is rarely broken in the transportation. 

I heard an anecdote of the manner in which good 
cheap champagne was manufactured to sell at five 
cents a bottle to the poor, who must drink their "vin 
de champagne." The person who gained her liveli- 
hood by this traffic was once an actress of good repu- 
tation. When age and losses had rendered her unfit 
for the profession, she conceived the idea of collect- 
ing daily all the pieces of lemon, orange, apple, 
peach or pear peelings that could be obtained from 
the restaurants, hotels or private residences. She 
washed them very nicely, removing all decayed 
pieces, placed them in a barrel, added about thirty 
pounds of cheap sugar, filled the barrel with rain 
water, and after it had fermented she drew it off, 

bottled, corked, labelled it, and sold it to inferior 
13* 



150 France and her People. 

retailing houses. In this manner she supported 
herself many years. 

The unfortunate shooting of Victor Noir caused 
the cessation of all social and public festivities at the 
Palace of the Tuileries. Preparations had been made 
for an official ball ; the invitations were issued to 
several thousand persons, but the fatal shot caused 
a sudden change. The following morning the stew- 
ard, or chief of the culinary department, was at a 
loss how to dispose of the viands. The question 
was submitted to the Empress Eugenie ; at once she 
ordered the collation to be sent to the barracks, 
which proved a feast to the soldiers. The Empress 
never allows an opportunity to escape her generous 
nature when she can render a service or ameliorate 
the condition of a human being. On history's pages 
her name will ever shine as the most zealous, devoted 
Christian, fond mother, and faithful friend. During 
the ravages of that terrible scourge, the small-pox, 
in the winter of 1870, who went forth to soothe the 
dying orphans, to breathe angelic whispers of love 
and peace to the departing sisters who had contracted 
the disease from the orphans committed to their 
charge ? Who passed forth from her palace home 
in a plain carriage, clad in sombre habiliments ? 
None other than that noble, disinterested, and un- 
selfish woman, the Empress of the French. From 
pure love she wandered through those wards of 



France and her People. 151 

sickening disease, a loathsome sight for those deli- 
cate nerves ; but she passed through all unharmed. 
Should she never reap her reward in this ungrateful 
world, in that far off blissful abode a crown awaits 
Eugenie, the modern Samaritan — a durable crown, 
imperishable, that will shine forever. The son of 
such a mother, educated with tender care, and pos- 
sessing brilliant talents, will make a wise ruler and a 
righteous judge. 

Somewhat excited has been certain localities of 
Paris for the past few days (the 7th, 8th, and 9th of 
February, 1870), caused by bands of paid ruffians 
parading some of the streets at night, crying, " Vive 
la Repiiblique" and barricading the streets with hogs- 
heads, omnibuses, and any vehicle they are lucky 
enough to stop and overturn ; also plundering honest 
shopkeepers, or any one they may encounter. This 
sad outbreak caused the death of one hundred and 
fifty persons, and many were wounded. This street 
rabble is paid ten cents a head per night by Roche- 
fort and his clique to every one that will parade and 
perpetrate all the mischief in their power. Brave 
men ! They adopt this plan, thinking to draw igno- 
rant persons over to their side, their object being to 
put down the present government and constitute — 
they care not what, if they can only fill their own 
pockets. 

The vigilant police force has quelled them for a 



152 France and her People. 

time, and Rochefort is silenced at least for six months 
for his slanderous calumnies against the Imperial 
family. Had Rochefort's sentence been for sixty 
years, it would prove a salutary blessing to this 
country. 

We took a drive to the barricades in La Vilette, a 
quarter of Paris that is an excellent hotbed for all 
seditious outbreaks. Nothing remained except huge 
piles of lumber and rubbish; all was quiet. We 
retraced our course, having enjoyed a long ride over 
smooth pavements, which is a great charm of riding 
in Paris, — no jolts, no concussions, no cobble-stones; 
the carriage rolls perfectly even, no noise, mud, or 
dust, for the streets in dry weather are continually 
watered, and kept swept in the muddy season. 



CHAPTER XV. 



Hotel de Ville — Ball — Minister Washburne's ball — Palace of Ver- 
sailles — Soap not furnished — Markets. 

^HE Hotel de Ville is memorable upon the page 
-*- of history as the scene of many stirring and 
eventful transactions. The construction of this mag- 
nificent edifice was commenced in 1533, and was not 
completed until the reign of Henry IV. It is in the 
Renaissance style ; the columns are Corinthian. 
Many additions have been made to this building at 
different periods. It is in the form of a rectangle, 
300 feet long and 250 broad. It is situated in an 
open space, and is seen to the best advantage. Five 
hundred different officials are employed in the Hotel 
de Ville, or town-hall of Paris. The " prefect " is 
the superior civic officer of the twenty mayors that 
preside over the twenty arrondissements, wards, or 
divisions of Paris. The prefect can entertain and 
preside at the festivities held in the Hotel de Ville ; 
the spacious accommodations of this magnificent 
edifice render scarcely a limit to the number of guests 
invited. 

At the ball we attended, ten thousand invitations 

i53 



154 France and her People. 

were issued. A short sketch of the fete may interest 
those who have been participators, and it will be 
news to others. At an early hour we entered our 
carriage and formed in line in front of the Tuileries 
on the river side. Our patience was nearly exhausted 
by a long sojourn en route, moving at intervals of five 
minutes a few paces when ordered by the mounted 
Garde de Paris. The line of carriages extended 
from the column of Vendome to the Hotel de Ville; 
many made their entry as early as three o'clock in 
the morning. 

As we approached, the building resembled a vast 
luminary, casting its fitful rays in all directions, ren- 
dering every object as distinctly visible as in midday. 
The entrance was carpeted to the carriage-way. 
Servants in livery and policemen surrounded the 
door. The company was ushered into a vast hall, 
the valets or footmen following, to receive the sortie 
de bal (the ball-cloak or wrappings). This reception 
room is occupied by ushers, policemen, and guests 
prior to their ascent to the salons ; the floor is inlaid 
with variegated marble ; the stairway is wide, afford- 
ing ample space for six persons to pass abreast. 
The decorations are most splendid ; choice exotics 
adorned the stairs ; and stationed a few feet apart 
were the Garde de Paris in full dress. They made 
an imposing appearance with their bright bayonets 
and helmets of brass; they were as rigid as a 



France and her People. 155 

statue of marble. I never saw one of them move a 
muscle. 

A gallery above forms a fine situation for a view 
of the ever-coming guests. Such a concourse of 
elegantly dressed people could seldom be seen, surg- 
ing in all directions, passing to and fro, undulating 
in the distance like the rise and fall of the mighty 
waves. It was impossible to advance except very 
slowly, the crowd was so dense. By dint of patience 
we reached the Salle de St. Jean, the most beautiful 
salon in the west wing, and then the green-house, 
that paradise of lovely flowers, emitting ten thousand 
perfumes. The lamps were so skilfully arranged 
that the effect of the lights and shades was as if na- 
ture's gorgeous rays had illumined the enchanting 
spot. Every flower was placed in the position to 
produce the most perfect effect; even the modest 
violet was conspicuous and no less fragrant than her 
proud sisters. 

The dancing salons are the most gorgeously deco- 
rated of any I have ever seen ; they exceed the Im- 
perial palaces ; the ceilings have been painted by 
eminent artists. The dancers en masse presented an 
animated living panorama as they flitted gaily through 
the intricate figures of the popular dances; youth 
did not alone occupy the floor, many with silvered 
locks being as light on the " fantastic toe " as the 
youngest present. 



156 France and her People. 

We passed to the supper rooms. Nothing could 
have been added to that feast of delicacies. Every 
article was in profusion ; and the abundance and 
variety of the viands can be imagined when I 
state that they were open to the company from ten 
o'clock until four in the morning, the hour the ball 
closed. In the Salle du Trone, where the guests 
are presented to the prefect and his lady, among 
other tributes of art, is an equestrian statue of Henry 
IV. of exquisite beauty, another master-piece of Jean 
Goujon, that celebrated sculptor who was one of the 
victims of St. Bartholomew's. 

Nature wearies even when surrounded by all the 
influences of art to gratify and charm the senses. 
We commenced our descent, which occupied forty 
minutes, the egress being equal to the ingress. It 
was the most uncomfortable position I ever had the 
misfortune to find myself in ; the heat was intense, 
the air oppressive, and we rejoiced when the last step 
was taken. 

, A very complete system exists in this country in 
regard to the departure of guests from assemblies. 
Ushers are in waiting when you wish your carriage. 
You give them your name, which they announce in a 
loud, sonorous tone — " The valet of Monsieur the 
Duke ," or " The valet of Madame S." Imme- 
diately the valet makes his appearance ; that is, if he 
possesses the force to crowd through the dense 



France and her People. 157 

throng of valets ; they then assist you with your 
sortie de bal and escort you to your carriage. We 
were not sorry when we heard the Porte-cochere 
(the entrance gate) open for the carriage to enter the 
courtyard, which almost all first-class hotels have ; 
there is such a feeling of safety in these hotels. No 
one can enter without first ringing, and then the 
concierge (the lodge-keeper) ascertains who you 
wish to see. No one is allowed to come up to your 
rooms without the concierge's consent. 

Another excellent regulation : any important let- 
ters from the chief of the city or any public officer, 
or from any member of the Imperial family, have to 
be registered in a book, with the day and date and 
hour when they are received ; by this plan no mis- 
take can occur. 

We had the pleasure of attending a reception and 

ball on the 22d of February, 1870, given in honor 

of the day by Hon. E. B. Washburne and lady. A 

large company collected in that hospitable mansion; 

it was said at least two thousand were present. The 

crowd was the only drawback to perfect enjoyment. 

Never did host and hostess receive more elegantly 

or entertain more sumptuously. The French and 

American flags met in cordial folds upon those 

peaceful walls. The sad, wise face of our lamented 

President Lincoln bore the same benign expression 

as in life. The portraits of Washington and Presi 
14 



158 France and her People, 

dent Grant were conspicuous among the decorations. 
Many foreigners were present, the Americans out- 
numbering them all. The orchestra discoursed 
many soul-inspiring strains, not omitting the national 
airs of America. The dancing continued long after 
we bade adieu to the festive scene. It was a most de- 
lightful entertainment, and to strangers in a foreign 
land it must have been a forcible reminiscence of 
home. 

The city of Versailles contains 44,000 inhabitants, 
a normal school, and the church of Notre Dame, 
erected in 1684, which has some fine stained glass. 
The barracks are very extensive. The modern im- 
provements are elegant ; a new Hotel de Ville. The 
hotels are numerous ; and one in particular for situa- 
tion is most delightful, the Hotel des Reservoirs ; it 
opens into the palace park, near the fountain of 
Neptune. 

The entrance to the palace of Versailles is by a 
wide, splendid gate, richly gilded, and bearing large 
lamps. When once inside the courtyard the visitor 
is surrounded by colossal statues of Colbert, Cardinal 
Richelieu, Sully, the prime minister of Henry IV., 
the Abbot of St. Denis, Admiral Duquesne, the great 
Conde (1686), general of Louis XIV., and many 
other eminent Frenchmen. The French people 
may err at times, but the many monuments and 
statues they have raised to the memory of the brave, 



France and her People. 159 

the talented, and the virtuous of the nation vindi- 
cate beyond doubt their keen, sensitive appreciation 
of valor, and their enthusiasm for grandeur and 
merit. 

The paintings in this palace cannot be seen in one 
day. A fast walker could not pass the paintings, 
without a halt, in less than an hour and a half. We 
spent four hours on our first visit in viewing the 
marvellous talent of our fellow-beings. What won- 
derful scenes the small brush can produce. 

Louis Philippe restored a portion of this palace to 
its original splendor, which had crumbled into decay 
by neglect and abuse, having been rented for tene- 
ment houses. Napoleon III., during his regime, has 
added many valuable paintings, representing many 
battle and other scenes ; the canvass seems one 
living mass of beings that could step out and hold 
converse with the visitor, they are so natural, and 
none more so than the storming of Fort Malakoff. 
The portraits of MacMahon, Niel (deceased), and 
Canrobert are most excellent pictures. Among this 
collection, one of the most striking pictures is Napo- 
leon I. standing by the tomb of Frederick the Great. 
But I must forbear attempting a lengthy description 
of the many magnificent paintings, as I might for- 
get myself, and weary my reader. 

We bade adieu to this palace, and hastened to take 
a cursory glance at the city, which is embellished 



160 France and her People. 

with wide avenues lined with four rows of trees, 
trimmed artistically, and having stone benches a few 
paces apart to accommodate the weary. By a sud- 
den turn we stood amidst the city fair ; it extended 
a long distance ; all kinds, qualities, and amount of 
wares were exposed for sale ; also the same games, 
tricks, and amusements I described in a former 
Chapter as having seen at St. Cloud. The crowd 
was composed of all descriptions of people, including 
many soldiers. A short transit by railway brought 
us to Paris. 

I have often seen it in print, and heard persons com- 
plain, that in Paris and France soap was not furnished 
at the hotels. In a few words I will give the rea- 
son. The proprietor of a first-class hotel informed 
me that since the influx of Americans they could not 
supply their rooms with toilet soap, as the gentle- 
men were constantly in the habit of simply convey- 
ing the precious cakes into their valises, trunks, or 
bags, and perhaps their pockets. This fact is well 
known in Paris ; therefore more than fifteen years 
ago the custom of providing soap for the toilet was 
abolished. The pure French soap is worth in Ame- 
rica from fifty cents to one dollar a cake; so the 
temptation of purloining such a valuable article 
could not be resisted. 

The markets are vast and of many distinct kinds ; 
they are a curiosity to visit. The central markets 



France and her People. 161 

are filled with every article conceivable ; they are 
supplied by subterraneous railways that have been 
constructed to bring in supplies to the city. The 
wholesale wheat market is held three times a week 
in a large circular building of stone, situated in the 
centre of a square, with sufficient space allowed for 
vehicles to pass. On market days they are restricted ; 
it cannot be used for a common highway. I chanced 
to pass through once ; the noise was fearful, groups 
of men in high tones discussing the prices ; to one 
unacquainted with the language it would sound like 
a fierce quarrel. 

The bird market is a very interesting spot to those 
who have a taste for ornithology or love the feathery 
tribe. The fish market is a wonderful sight — from 
the tiny minnow to the monster salmon, from the 
shrimp to the lobster, from the mussel to the oyster, 
all are there. The dog market has its adherents, 
customers, vendors, buyers, and idlers. There they 
are, the poor, abused canine tribe ; but not so in this 
country, for here they are treated in a respectable 
manner. All kinds are in this market — poodles by 
the hundreds, terriers looking up at you from under 
those long, shaggy eye-surrounded surface, almost 
imploring you to buy them ; then the full-blooded 
hounds, showing their strength, speed, and muscle ; 
the watch-dogs made a good display, as did many 
others. 

14* 



1 62 France and her People. 

The flower-gardens are also separate, being entirely 
distinct from any other. The retail market abounds 
with all the fruits ; and not eatables only, but dry- 
goods and other articles, convenient for those having 
little leisure for shopping elsewhere, are here dis- 
played. 




CHAPTER XVI. 

Reuil — Malmaison — Germain-en-Laye — Office for lost articles — Po 
liteness of trades people — Scotch church. 

^HIS being one of those lovely mornings so 

•*■ peculiar to this country, and most inviting for 

a drive, we were soon at the carnage stand. After 

selecting a very nice, fresh-looking vehicle, a good 

strong horse, and a perfect specimen of a French 

coachman, we were in a few moments on the way to 

Reuil. It is a small town, containing the spacious 

barracks, formerly the home of the Swiss Guard 

during the reign of the Bourbons. The village 

church was built, in 1584, at the expense of Cardinal 

Richelieu. Here repose the remains of the Empress 

Josephine under a chaste white marble monument ; 

her effigy is represented kneeling. It was erected 

by her children, Queen Hortense and Prince Eugene. 

Directly opposite is the tomb of Queen Hortense, 

the mother of Napoleon III., erected here in 1866 

by her son, with the simple inscription, " To Queen 

Hortense, by her son, the Prince Louis Bonaparte." It 

is a kneeling, veiled statue of exquisite work, every 

line perfect and faultless. A few paces from the 

163 



1 64 France and her People. 

monument we descended several steps, and found 
ourselves in a marble vault, where Queen Hortense 
is entombed. The sarcophagus is a fine piece of 
workmanship ; on the top are placed her royal em- 
blems, cloak, and crown, beautifully chiselled. The 
guide lighted the lamps that are in front of the 
tomb. The walls were thickly hung with les immor- 
telles, deposited in this silent vault from motives of 
love and respect to Napoleon's mother. On all fete 
days the lamps are lighted. 

As I stood gazing on this tomb I thought of the 
departed mother, her trials, struggles, banishment 
from her native land, and the fiery ordeal she passed 
through. Her prayers for that little son were an- 
swered. She exerted every nerve, when in exile, to 
educate that boy and instil into his youthful mind 
principles of honor, to prepare him for the trials of 
his future life. How well she succeeded is confirmed 
by the government of this nation during the past 
eighteen years. Louis Napoleon, when a little boy, 
was standing by his mother's knee; turning, she 
asked him, "What would you do, my son, if we 
should become poor and have no bread to eat ? " He 
innocently replied, " I would stand at the gate of the 
Tuileries and sell violets to such kind ladies as you 
are, then we should have bread." 

A delightful drive of two miles over a smooth road 
brought us to a shady turn, where we beheld the 



France and her People. 165 

favorite abode of the Empress Josephine, " Malmai- 
son." This cherished spot is where her sorrowful 
days were ended, where her pure, noble spirit fled 
fom earth to heaven. 

The chateau is a plain building, three stories high, 
with a frontage opening upon a wide lawn with a 
wooded back-ground, gravel walks in front forming 
a circle leading to the entrance gates, bordered with 
shrubs and flowers in their pristine loveliness. The 
air was redolent with perfume, and nature's vocalists 
enlivened this quiet spot. The Empress made great 
improvement in these grounds, introducing the use- 
ful and the ornamental. Her conservatory was not 
excelled ; her Swiss farm, her menagerie, and pastu- 
rage for the merino exist no longer. 

This property has had several owners. Queen 
Christiana, of Spain, resided here several years ago. 
In 1 86 1 the Emperor Napoleon III. purchased this 
estate, and has restored the buildings and grounds 
to a model of beauty, suited to a refined and culti- 
vated taste. The Emperor and Empress have shown 
a great family reverence in collecting all the souve- 
nirs and articles belonging to their family, in repla- 
cing them even in the same apartments and positions 
as when arranged by the taste of his grandmother. 
The boudoir remains the same as when last occupied. 
There stands the Empress' harp, her drawings, her 
work-stand, an unfinished piece of embroidery in the 



1 66 France and her People. 

frame — nothing is wanting except the rare and lovely 
Josephine to preside. 

The guide gave me a piece of yarn from a ball in 
the work-box. He said, " You are so much pleased 
with these relics, keep it." I thanked him. The bed 
upon which the Empress died is unchanged, and so 
is every article in the apartment. In the Emperor's 
room is the dressing-case he used at St. Helena, that 
barren isle. The table and untarnished cover in the 
council chamber is still there, bright, with not a ves- 
tige of decay. The drawings executed by Queen 
Hortense are beautiful ; one in particular, of her hus- 
band, Louis Bonaparte, called forth the praise of all 
the visitors. A long table in the reception-room 
was covered with many relics of gems, gold and sil- 
ver vases, boxes, and various other articles of intrin- 
sic value. They were presented to Napoleon I. by 
the king of Spain. Here the Emperor, in 1815, bade 
adieu to his venerated mother, and to Talma, his 
friend. He spent several days in this retreat, the 
last in his beloved land. 

We continued our drive to Marly along the banks 
of the Seine, then had a circuitous drive up hill. 
The splendid view that burst upon us when we 
gained the high elevation of St. Germain-en-Laye 
repaid us for the hot, toilsome drive. There the 
silvery Seine flowed in an endless variety of forms, 
forming islands, capes, and miniature continents; 



France mid her People. 167 

then gliding tranquilly under the stupendous bridges, 
all lending their aid in diversifying the scenery. 
Such palatial mansions and cottages, surrounded 
with vine-clad garden walls, hedges of roses, borders 
of mignonette, pinks, and hyacinths, arbors of ivy, 
ivy clinging from roof and porch, ivy-trellised walls, 
ivy clustering over gates and posts, ivy-decked 
churches, the light green sprigs forming a striking 
contrast with the dark weather-beaten leaves of many 
days. 

An excellent view of Mont Valerien from this po- 
sition is obtained. It is the strongest citadel of the 
fortifications of' Paris. The church on the summit 
of this mount, among other curiosities and sacred 
relics, is said to possess a fragment of the true cross. 

This town has 14,000 inhabitants. In the sum- 
mer months it becomes densely populated, being a 
favorite resort on account of the pure air and health- 
ful location. The origin of the name St. Germain- 
en-Laye is from an ancient chapel and monastery of 
St. Germanus, built during the reign of King Robert 
I. The ancient castle, previous to the erection of 
the palace of Versailles, was a favorite resort of the 
kings of France. It was built by Francis I. ; the 
Henrys also resided here ; it was abandoned by 
Louis XIV., on account of having St. Denis, the 
burial-place of his beloved family, in view. 

A miserable, poverty-stricken court, James II. of 



1 68 France and her People. 

England held here. You can imagine what the ap- 
pearance of a palace must be that had served for 
barracks, military prison, and finally had fallen into 
a dilapidated condition, when the Emperor Napoleon 
III. decided to rebuild and convert it into a Gallish 
(Roman Gaulish) Museum. A troop of fairies must 
have passed their enchantments over these fair halls 
and systematically arranged apartments. We tra- 
versed room after room, all filled with specimens by 
the thousand ; and when the Gaulish and Celtic col- 
lection is added from the Louvre in Paris, it will be 
the most extensive exhibition of the kind in the 
world. The improvements are unfinished. 

The church came next in course. We met a priest, 
who kindly explained the antique paintings ; above 
all he prized an image of the Virgin Mary, and said 
it was five hundred years old. He had just had it 
painted and gilded ; and gaily it shone in its many 
new coats of paint. He told me to place all my 
hopes and dependence upon that holy image, and at 
that shrine, and my future would be a blissful abode 
in Paradise. Good old man, we bade him adieu, and 
promised, should we visit his home again, to come 
and learn sacred truths from his reverend lips. 

Now to the forest we must haste, or even this 
transient visit will be denied us, as time waits not 
here. These magnificent woods are among the 
largest in France. They have a circuit of twenty- 



France and her People. 169 

one miles, intersected by many roads. The drives 
and walks are delightful. In the centre of these 
woods is the Pavilion de la Meute (dog-kennel), com- 
menced by Francis I. In the remote sections deer 
and wild boar still abound. 

There is a romantic terrace high above the Seine 
that lends beauty to the scenery of St. Germain-en- 
Laye, and from it a fine prospect of the valley below, 
dotted with busy life scenes, is obtained. Animated 
nature, always so lovely, even when unassisted by 
art, in this vale is intensified by the combinations of 
genius, rendering the view unequalled in any coun- 
try. A celebrated Fete des Loges, a gay reunion 
for fun and frolic, which takes place in the forest 
every autumn, lasting three days, commences on the 
first Sunday in September, and closes on the Tues- 
day night following. Its appellation is after a coun- 
try residence built by Anne of Austria, wife of Louis 
XIII. 

I was unfortunate in leaving several articles of 
value in a public carriage. I did not recollect the 
number of the carriage, and therefore supposed I 
should never recover the lost parcel. Two weeks 
after the occurrence I mentioned the circumstance to 
a gentleman, who said : " If your property was left, 
two or five years ago, only describe what you lost ; 
I will give you the address of the office." I imme- 
diately called, and told the guide at the door my 
*5 



170 France and her People. 

business ; he politely directed me to the stairs, and 
said it was only on the fifth floor. In due time I 
gained the desired landing, and looking up read, 
" Office of Lost Articles." A gentle push of the 
door, and I stood before the attendant. I informed 
him what I had lost. In a few moments he returned 
from an adjoining room and handed me my lost 
treasure. I thanked him, and said, " Sir, I would be 
obliged if you will explain to me this excellent sys- 
tem, for I have never before left an article in a public 
conveyance that was recovered." 

"We have, madam, a list of all the drivers' names 
and the number of their carriages. Every honest 
coachman at night deposits the articles he finds in 
his carriage in this office." He also said it was 
seldom any one called that did not receive his or her 
missing articles. I then inquired if there was any 
inducement or reward for coachmen's honesty. 
" Nothing," he said, " only that little box by the 
door ; every one is at liberty to drop in what they 
please. Four times a year the box is opened and 
the contents equally distributed to all who have re- 
turned articles to the office. By this plan our men 
are encouraged to be honest ; and you have no idea 
what a nice little sum they make in a few years." 

On the arrival of all railway trains into Paris the 
custom-house officers meet the traveller at the exit 
gate, and bowing politely, ask if he has any tobacco, 



France and her People. 171 

brandy, or poultry. This applies to those coming in 
from the provinces, there being an entry duty into 
Paris. I came in from Versailles for six weeks con- 
stantly ; but after a few trips, instead of interrogating 
me, the officer would say, " You carry no brandy, 
tobacco, or poultry." My pass word was, " No." 
These people are so accustomed to be polite, that 
when at variance they are ever civil, which often re- 
sults in very ludicrous scenes. An errand-boy would 
not think of leaving your presence without a low 
bow and a salute, remarking, " I hope for the plea- 
sure of seeing you again." Here one expects to 
receive the same politeness from a beggar as a prince. 
Gentlemen never enter a restaurant without bow- 
ing to the company, and upon leaving they never 
put their hats on until they pass through the door, 
and then salute the company by bowing again. A 
very good plan is adopted in all restaurants ; to avoid 
jealousy among the waiters, the money the waiters 
receive during the day from guests is immediately 
deposited in a money-box on the proprietor's desk, 
who each evening divides the contents equally, thus 
preventing all favoritism. 

The Scotch church is situated in the Rue de Ri- 
voli, and is named the Chapel of the Oratoire. It is 
located opposite the north entrance to the Louvre, 
and is a plain place of worship, up stairs, back of the 
French Protestant church that faces on the Rue St. 



172 France and her People. 

Honore, in the same building. The services are 
conducted by the Rev. Mr. Eddy, an eloquent ex- 
pounder of the word of God, a most devoted, zealous 
man. Sermons that I have heard from that simple 
pulpit, preached to a handful of Christians, should be 
published and read by the world. If all ministers 
of Christ would preach in the same spirit, the same 
humble, sincere style, I feel confident God's work 
would prosper far better, and hundreds be added to 
the churches that now stand halting. 




CHAPTER XVII. 

Madeleine — The Emperor's opinion of Mr. Lincoln — Skating in the 
Bois de Boulogne — Jardin d'Acclimatation — Carnival — Porte St. 
Martin — Porte St. Denis. 

~^HE church of the Madeleine is one of the most 
■** beautiful in Paris ; its form is that of a Grecian 
temple, 328 feet in length, and 138 feet in breadth, 
surrounded by Corinthian columns 50 feet in height. 
The foundations of this edifice were laid in 1764; it 
was not completed until 1842. The niches in the 
walls contain statues, by modern sculptors, of saints 
especially revered in France, commencing with the 
angel Gabriel and terminating with the angel Mi- 
chael. The interior, the walls, and floor are of mar- 
ble. It is one vast, spacious hall, illuminated by 
cupolas, elegantly decorated and gilded. The paint- 
ings are numerous. The entire ceiling of the 
choir is adorned by a superb fresco, representing 
various historic events, such as Napoleon I. receiving 
the Crown from Pope Pius VII. ; The Maid of Or- 
leans, Dante, Raphael, Louis XVIII. , and many 
more which I could enumerate. The massive doors 
are of bronze, thirty-three feet in height and sixteen 
15* 173 



174 France and her People. 

in breadth ; the ten commandments are illustrated 
upon them. Twenty-eight marble steps run the 
whole width of the church. 

The flower markets on Wednesdays and Satur- 
days are held on both sides of the Madeleine from 
five in the morning until late in the afternoon. Great 
taste is displayed in the arrangement of the plants 
and flowers. I was surprised to find white lilacs and 
numerous spring and summer flowers in full bloom all 
winter. Many stalls deal only in bouquets. Here 
almost every known flower can be found, exotics and 
native choice flowers, all highly cultivated. The 
vendors are fluent in speech, affable, extremely po- 
lite, and entice you to purchase in numberless ways, 
suggesting that they know you must have a dear 
friend that you should remember by a pot of mig- 
nonette, a bunch of roses, or some love token in the 
form of a floral gift. By their pleasing manner they 
sell many francs' worth that a morose and repulsive 
person would have fade on their hands. 

Upon one occasion, when in conversation with the 
Emperor Napoleon, he remarked: " I considered 
Mr. Lincoln one of the kindest-hearted, one of the 
most noble men that ever lived." I was surprised, 
though, upon reflection, I knew that the honorable 
nature of men is ever respected and admired, even 
by those with whom they differ in sentiments, creed, 
or politics. As we continued conversing my thoughts 



France and her People. 175 

were, Can this be the august sovereign, this the lone 
prisoner of Ham, this the exiled Prince ? Can this 
be the President of 1848, the man that astounded 
the civilized world by the coup d'etat f Yes, the 
same. He is the representative of modern science 
and civilization, the promoter and encourager of all 
industrial arts, and the monarch that has done more 
for France, and governed with greater clemency, 
and for as long a period, as any of his predecessors. 
The Emperor has a most expressive eye, a keen 
perception of mankind ; he retains his youthful ap- 
pearance wonderfully — no one would think he was 
over fifty-four — with all the vicissitudes of fortune 
and overwhelming care. Few would retain the ac- 
tivity and buoyancy of spirits his Majesty displays 
at his time of life. 

The morning papers announced that the ice was 
good, pronounced firm for the skaters to venture 
upon the lake in the Bois de Boulogne. The wea- 
ther having been exceedingly mild, few opportunities 
had been afforded this winter for the exhilarating 
sport. Before ten o'clock A. m. we learned that this 
was to be a grand affair. There was a perfect rush 
at an early hour ; we joined in the procession, and 
amid thousands we were making for the Tour des 
Lacs, the favorite drive within the Bois. After 
securing an eligible position we stopped, and were 
well repaid by the view we enjoyed. The lake was 



176 Fra7ice and her People. 

covered with happy ones, all eager to dash out upon 
those ice-fettered waters in graceful curves, short 
cuts, and artistic attitudes. The focus of attraction 
was the Emperor and suite; they formed a large 
party. His Majesty skates admirably; this is one 
of his favorite amusements, in which he excels. 
Several American skaters were displaying their skill. 
The bank of the lake was lined with rows of skates 
of all sizes, lying ready to hire. We viewed the gay 
revellers for nearly thirty minutes, then drove on. 
By paying an entrance fee of twenty-five francs a 
person can become a member of the Imperial Skat- 
ing Club. Prince Murat is the president of this 
society. 

In the Jardin d'Acclimatation, as its name denotes, 
experiments are continually being made with a view 
to acclimatize foreign plants, birds, eggs, seeds, and 
animals. This is one of the most instructive and 
interesting resorts I have ever visited. The Aviary 
contains twenty-one distinct compartments, fitted up 
with all necessary conveniences, and filled with birds 
from all climes and of every plumage, from the gay- 
est decked songster to the dull-feathered little wren. 
Next in course is the poultry building and enclosure, 
which has thirty-one compartments well adapted to 
the raising of poultry. I was particularly interested 
in the silk-worm nursery, where various species are 
raised; their food is cultivated in a garden close by. 



France and her People. 177 

The grounds are beautifully laid out, the cages 
are constructed with taste, and all arranged accord- 
ing to the wants of the inmates. A limpid stream 
traverses the garden, which is spanned in many- 
places by rustic bridges. The water forms miniature 
isles of beauty. The stream is not for an adornment 
alone ; numbers of aquatic plants are propagated and 
raised in these waters. For taste or variety of its 
contents the hot-house cannot be surpassed. There 
is here also a reading-room and restaurant ; and an 
extensive aquarium, consisting of ten glass reservoirs 
filled with sea-water, and four with fresh, which is 
constantly renewed by means of pumps. Here is a 
fine opportunity afforded to ascertain the habits of 
the finny tribe and observe them from day to day. 
There is also in this building a receptacle for the 
artificial breeding of fish. The animals from the 
tropics are well protected from cold, and those from 
the frigid regions are guarded from the extreme heat , 
thus, in this wonderful garden, more can be seen 
and more learned in a short space of time than by 
diligent theoretical study for months. 

This garden is situated in that portion of the Bois 
de Boulogne which skirts the Boulevard de Maillot, 
and lies between the Portes dcs Sablons and the 
Porte de Madrid. 

The Hippodrome is a circus where in summer 
equestrian performances can be witnessed several 



178 France and her People. 

times a week. This edifice is on the Avenue de 
l'lmperatrice, near the Bois de Boulogne. 

The holy Sabbath has been ushered in by the 
ringing of bells, blowing of horns, and a confused 
general noise. The streets are masses of human 
beings moving in all directions, many dressed in 
caricature, as clowns or harlequins ; a great variety 
of masks are worn on the streets. It was with diffi- 
culty I could force my way home from church 
through the dense crowd. This is Carnival Sunday, 
preceding the commencement of Lent. These cus- 
toms have existed in the Church of Rome for ages. 
In Paris it is not carried on to such an extent 
as in former years, as it is now continued only three 
days. Le Bceuf Gras (the fatted beef), is driven 
through all the principal streets. The tumult and 
noise subsided at ten o'clock in the evening ; but on 
Monday morning, at early dawn, the noise com- 
menced again. We had the pleasure of seeing the 
procession, which reached about two miles. It was 
composed of a motley concourse : first came a cha- 
riot drawn by six horses, containing the shepherd- 
esses, all dressed in white and elaborately trimmed 
with ribbons and flowers ; then masses of lamb and 
sheep; then a man-of-war vessel, rigged and fitted 
out complete, was drawn by four horses. It looked 
very natural. The sailors sang with their usual 
spirit. After these came a company of helmeted 



France and her People. 1 79 

knights ; then ancient warriors, soldiers, clowns, 
burlesque soldiery ; then a band of gardeners, all 
beautifully decked with flowers. A splendid floral 
tent, supported on pillars, and borne along by two im- 
mense oxen, overshadowed them. They were decked 
with gay ribbons fluttering from their horns ; to-mor- 
row they will be slaughtered. One butcher owns 
them ; he reaps a large profit from the sale of the beef. 
This is " Mardi Gras" (Shrove Tuesday), the last 
day of the carnival. The sight of the people from 
our balcony as they rushed into the court-yard of 
the Tuileries, in expectancy of the parade, was, in 
reality, quite as good a turn-out as the beeves and 
their companions. A loud blast of bugles announced 
the approach of the caravan ; as they have turned 
into the palace entrance, we will follow them, to see 
what kind of a reception greeted them. On the 
balcony, in front of the main portion of the palace, 
the Emperor, Empress, Prince Imperial and suite 
were standing to receive the parade. After the 
usual salutations the Emperor presented the owner 
of the beeves with four thousand francs. After 
loud and continued cheering and shouts of " Vive 
PEmpereur" they left in the same order as they 
came. They crossed over to the Palais Royal, and 
were here received by Prince Napoleon and his 
family ; he gave the butcher two thousand francs. 
Cheering and applause followed. The paraders then 



180 France and her People 

paid their respects to the Minister of War. Here 
they received another two thousand francs ; and 
thus they called on all the heads of the different 
city departments and received a donation from each 
one. This is considered a great tax, being annual. 
The money bestowed pays the expenses of the 
parade. 

The 24th of March is called " Demi Careme " 
(Half Lent). This day the washerwomen celebrate 
their anniversary by a burlesque parade, a very- 
ludicrous sight. I chanced to meet it on one of the 
Boulevards. 

This festive day is terminated by a grand masked 
ball ; it is the closing of all the masquerades, the 
morrow being the commencement of Lent. The 
season of masked balls is inaugurated at Christ- 
mas, and continued with unbounded success; those 
of the Grand Opera are held every Saturday. 
Strangers, accompanied by ladies, always take a box, 
thereby obtaining an excellent view. Nowhere else 
probably in the world can a merrier or more boister- 
ous scene be witnessed. The females that frequent 
these balls always wear masks or dominoes; the 
men dress in evening costume. Of course the con- 
course is formed of an extremely mixed society; 
the better classes never participating, being only 
spectators of the frolic and fun. 

One of the most refined and delightful resorts to 



France and her People. 181 

spend an evening in the midst of the highest order 
of classical music, is the Conservatoire de Musique. 
Here all the celebrated music of Beethoven, Men- 
delssohn, Mozart, and other distinguished musicians 
is performed with exquisite taste and skill. During 
Lent all the concert rooms of Paris are more fre- 
quented ; in summer many of them are closed, I 
suppose on account of there being a great number 
of out-of-door musical entertainments during the 
warm weather. 

Being at leisure, and ever anxious to behold some 
interesting object, we went to the Porte St. Martin, 
a triumphal arch of equal dimensions, being in 
breadth and in height fifty-four feet. This ancient 
honorary edifice was erected by the city in 1674, in 
commemoration of the victories of Louis XIV. The 
bas-reliefs and inscriptions on the sides represent 
the defeat of the Triple Alliance — Germans, Dutch, 
and Spaniards — the taking of Limbourg, and the 
victory over the Germans. 

The Porte St. Denis, another triumphal arch, 

erected by the city in 1672, to commemorate the 

brilliant successes of Louis XIV. in Holland and in 

the district of the Lower Rhine, is seventy-two feet 

in height ; the archway is forty-three feet in height, 

and twenty feet in width. The inscriptions are in 

Latin, one addressed to " Louis the Great, for having 

within sixty days crossed the Rhine, the Waal, the 
16 



1 82 France and her People. 

Meuse, and the Issel, conquered three provinces and 
captured forty fortified cities." The relief and in- 
scriptions on the back note that the same monarch 
took Maestricht in thirteen days. The most beauti- 
ful work is the vanquished, mourning Holland on a 
dead lion, and the river-god of the Rhine. These 
are on the obelisk. Above the archway is repre- 
sented Louis XIV. in his passage of the Rhine at 
Tollhuis, below Emmerich, where the river was shal- 
low in consequence of a drought. These gateways 
have been the scene of sanguinary conflicts ; in 1830, 
the deadliest volleys poured from under these old 
time-honored arches; in 1848 the first fighting was 
also on this ground. The environs are densely popu- 
lated ; shops of all descriptions line the streets upon 
which these " Portes " are situated. They are mas- 
sive and present a grand appearance, and are so 
strongly built they will stand for ages. 

A drive through several new Boulevards gave us 
an idea of the vastness of the improvements, and 
what has been achieved during the present regime. 
In every direction new residences are progressing; 
new streets are continually being opened ; and mod- 
ern public and charitable institutions are in the 
course of construction. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

The spirit that existed on our return — Enghien-les-Bains — Hotel — 
Lake — Ball — Concert — Mineral Spring — Fishing — Blind Man. 

"\"\ J HAT a change greeted us on our return to 
* * Paris after an absence of ten weeks. There 
appeared to be but one sole absorbing topic, and 
that was war. From a peaceful community, they 
were transformed into a war-desiring, a war-loving, 
a war-talking, a war-acting nation ; the oldest, most 
decrepid men, bowed down by years, cried war ; the 
young men, soldiers and officers, all were eager for 
war; the youngest boy that could carry a wooden 
gun would tell you he was going to the war. I 
heard a gentleman remark: "We must have war; if 
the Emperor will not declare war the nation will; 
we are determined to revenge the insults heaped 
upon us during the past fourteen years, at the point 
of the bayonet." 

Another said publicly: "If the Emperor will not 
declare war he dishonors France, he wishes us to be 
trampled upon by those arrogant boorish people. 
Yes, to keep our frontier protected has cost us mil- 
lions of francs. We will conquer them, and have 

no fortresses to consume our money. We are detcr- 

183 



184 France a7td her People, 

mined on war. If Napoleon does not declare war, 
we will put a ruler in his place that will make war." 

I might cite thousands of incidents showing that 
war was the idol, the household god. Mars while 
they slumbered had passed his chariot of war over 
their dormant faculties, which on awakening they 
ushered into life ; they nurtured the spirit, tenderly, 
actively; they rehearsed in glowing colors the vic- 
tories of Napoleon I. 

The same spirit pervaded the sequestered village 
of Enghien. Beside the borders of her pure lake 
war was the theme; at the mineral spring, war; at 
the table, war was the sole topic ; at the railway sta- 
tion, war; at the portals of the churches, war; at 
the post-office, war; at the markets, at the shops, 
war; an errand boy would not deliver a parcel 
without saying ere he bowed himself out : " Madam, 
we are on the verge of war, we will all go, we con- 
quered Prussia once, we can do so again." 

I never encountered a man, woman, or child but 
cried war. I replied to many that war impoverished 
a country, and that they would feel the effects of a 
long and perhaps disastrous war. I wish you could 
have heard the derision, the utter contempt they 
entertained for those who only suggested the bare 
possibility of their defeat. One and all were san- 
guine, elated by the past glorious successes of their 
armies. 



France and her People. 185 

It being the height of summer we hailed a 
sojourn at Enghien-les-Bains with pleasure, and 
arrived on a clear moonlight evening. The town 
looked lively and animated; the streets rilled with 
promenaders; the omnibuses and carriages dashing 
up and down the avenue leading to the trains. As 
we drove to the hotel door, distant strains of music 
floated on the air from the band stationed in the 
"Garden of Roses;" all combined to produce a 
cheering effect on our rather sad hearts. 

Our first stop was at the Hotel Talma, where the 
celebrated actor Talma died. Here we had diffi- 
culty in procuring suitable rooms, and we moved 
to the Hotel des Quatre Pavilions (Hotel of Four 
Pavilions), a large and commodious dwelling, with 
very little internal communication, having four out- 
side entrances. The surroundings are charming; 
ancient forest trees form a shady background, the 
abode of hundreds of gay songsters, enlivening the 
pale invalid that languidly reposes in that ivy-clad 
arbor, also distracting the thoughts of that gouty 
old nobleman from himself to the feathery tribe, 
that even venture to pick a few stray crumbs from 
the small round table where he has partaken of his 
early meal, cafe au lait (coffee with milk). 

He allows them, allures them, soon loves them, 
nay feeds them — why? I will tell you. When 

young he had a fair maiden whom he loved. Her 
16* 



1 86 France and her People. 

passion was for birds. She died; he never forgot 
the image of his dear departed, and has ever since 
cherished a fondness for the innocent songsters. 
Each day I saw him enjoying the bird music, and 
no doubt musing of maiden fair, and birds that had 
flown forever. What a pleasing sight, to behold 
from our window each day from one to two hun- 
dred dining under the shade. On Sundays the 
number was always increased. 

The lake bears the same name as the town. It 
is a beautiful sheet of water, with a drive around, 
and an isle of verdure reposing lovingly upon 
its placid bosom, the home of many swans. In 
the moonbeams they resemble snowballs, rolling 
gracefully to and fro. They number two hundred. 
Night and morning they are fed; several bushels of 
bread, cut up by machinery into small pieces, with 
the fish they catch, afford them a good living. 

Invitations came early in the week for the first 
ball of the season. These balls are held at the 
Casino, situated in the " Garden of Roses." The 
evening of the ball was ushered in by a calm, clear 
moonlight, flooding lake, woods and garden with a 
mellow tint. As we approached the hall, the bright 
gas lights radiated every object with the glare of 
noon-day. The orchestra was inviting, by its lively 
strains, the dancers to the floor ; soon they were in 
motion. It indeed was dancing; no slow, lag 



France and her People. 187 

ging, listless, movements, but whole heart and soul 
dancing. A sight of those dancers is sufficient to 
" drive dull care away." The celebrated Doctor F. 
of Paris met us cordially, and introduced us to 
many agreeable persons, among the number, Colo- 
nel R., belonging to his Majesty's staff. He was a 
most entertaining person, and had been in Mexico 
during the war. He spoke English fluently. Many 
officers were present all anxious to join their regi- 
ments and fight for the Emperor and the glory of 
France. War was not declared, only whispered, 
anticipated with strong hopes of success. Not one 
of those officers had a doubt but that they would be 
victorious ; they all expressed one sentiment : " We 
will enter Berlin ; down with the Prussians ! Vive 
V Empereurr 

One, a slight, fair youth, more enthusiastic than 
his companions, said : " My grandfather entered Ber- 
lin ; I will, — we all will." Alas for human power ! 
That young officer was killed in the first battle ; his 
anticipations were soon ended. 

The hall is also used for concerts. Every week 
there are theatrical performances and an opera. 
The musicians occupy part of the stage, which has 
a pretty painted background; the foot-lights were 
tastefully trimmed with natural flowers. The goddess 
Flora must have passed through this hall, and pro- 
fusely scattered her emblems from ceiling to floor. 



1 88 France and her People. 

Garlands of many-tinted flowers decked the ban- 
queting room. 

One sweet blossom, bud, or flower had strayed 
into the left side of every coat: this is a prevalent 
custom, not confined to any grade in society. I have 
often watched the garqons (waiters), errand boys, 
and clerks clustering around a vender of violets, and 
for two cents they were the possessors of a fragrant 
bunch of one of nature's sweetest gems — a modest 
violet encircled with leaves of emerald. 

Every evening a full orchestra gave a free concert 
in the " Garden of Roses," which we could enjoy 
from our window, if not inclined to attend personally. 
The beauty of this garden is renowned. A long 
row of chairs is placed on the border of the lake, and 
this, with the shrubs and flowers forming a frontage, 
and a deep wooded background, renders this garden 
a delightful spot on a warm evening — the entire scene 
being enlivened by transporting music, and the joy- 
ous echoes of happy voices, arising from boating 
parties on the lake. The music ceased at ten o'clock. 
Good hours were enforced in this quiet town. 

The mineral spring is sulphureous, very strong 
and intensely disagreeable. The surroundings are 
romantic. A rustic-covered roof supported by 
pillars protects the waters. The seats correspond ; 
shrubs and shade almost conceal the spring, which 
is approached by a winding path. The bathing 



France and her People. 189 

establishment is supplied from this spring; and 
fitted up with every comfort and luxury. The pro- 
prietor owns the " Garden of Roses," and gives the 
concerts. All the bathers have free tickets to the 
balls. The prices are very moderate. Here the 
gay Parisians seek pleasure, health and pastime. 

Fishing is the only extra. To keep it select, and 
preserve the fish in the lake, every one has to pay 
ten francs a month for the privilege of angling, and 
this is restricted to the bathers. I could not resist 
the temptation of dropping in a line, and frequently, 
at five o'clock in the morning, I was hauling in a 
fine pike, carp or perch, which our landlord pre- 
pared for our breakfast. Moistened bread worked 
into small balls, and placed firmly on the point of 
the hook, is very sure bait in these waters. Upon a 
lovely day, when the walls of the house were irk- 
some, I wandered into the " Garden of Roses " ; an 
unusual crowd had collected. I soon perceived the 
cause. There, seated beside an ancient tree, with a 
small table in front of him, sat a blind man playing 
dominoes with any who desired to test his skill. 
He won every game ; he played with facility and 
rapidity; it was all by the touch ; he had practised 
this game for a scries of years. Many gave him a 
trifle; and in this manner he secured a living. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Bois de Boulogne — Equestrians — Montmorency — Imperial Library — 
St. Gratien — Paris before the declaration of war — Price of Brandy 
— Balls of different classes — Consideration for servants. 

*^r*HE Bois de Boulogne contains 2500 acres; a 
. most delightful resort. It was once a forest, 
the haunt of bandits. Louis XVIII. caused new 
trees to be planted; in 18 14 and 1815 the Prussian 
and Russian armies encamped here, destroying 
nearly all the trees. Every improvement is now 
complete, and it is the first park in the world for 
variety, beauty, and attractive scenes. The Pre 
Catelan is a rural retreat, a great rendezvous, and 
much in vogue a few years since; but the Chalet 
des lies has now the preeminence. It is a large and 
tasty Swiss chalet, or house, situated on an island 
in the lake, with a ferry to and from the island for 
the exorbitant sum of four cents. At this restau- 
rant breakfasts, dinners and suppers are furnished in 
all styles and conditions. There is here an open 
theatre, games of all descriptions, a reading-room, 
and music. When illuminated by gas the chalet 
presents a most lively and beautiful appearance, 

surrounded by foliage and water. 
190 



France and her People. 191 

The outlet 01 the lakes forms two brooks; they 
are contrived with such exquisite taste as to appear 
natural. One of these, by a shady walk, leads to the 
cascade. This strikingly charming fall of water is a 
refreshing sight to the denizen of the city. The 
drives are an alternation of wood and water, ren- 
dered more lovely by the introduction of various 
flowers in mounds, oblong and square beds, ar- 
ranged with great skill and taste. On Sunday this 
park is crowded with the working and middling 
classes. 

The race-course within these precincts has been 
granted by the city to the French Jockey Club. 
Here the autumn races are held, attended by the 
Imperial family and all the aristocracy, native and 
foreign. I was never more forcibly convinced of 
the artistic grace and skill of equestrians than on this 
day. We met a cavalcade returning from the Bois 
de Boulogne. The ladies rode with the grace of a 
Diana, the gentlemen as experienced horsemen. 
Riding is practised more in Paris than in any 
other city. The smooth avenues and streets 
induce many to mount ; had they only cobble-stones 
to traverse they would be excused. A special 
road for equestrians reaches from the Arc de 
Triomphe to the Bois de Boulogne. 

I had the gratification of meeting the Emperor, 
Empress and Prince Imperial this afternoon on the 



192 France and her People. 

Champs Elysees. They were in full tenue dress, 
called a la Daumont, in an open barouche drawn by 
four superb horses, with outriders dressed in red 
and gold. The Emperor returned the many saluta- 
tions with grace and dignity; the Empress looked as 
lovely and serene as usual, favoring her many friends 
with a gracious smile of recognition. Her style of 
dress is simple elegance. The Prince rode in an 
open carriage also, accompanied by several belong- 
ing to the Imperial household. The cortege pro- 
duced a great outburst of feeling, and " Vive PEmpe- 
reur" was uttered by hundreds. I have often met 
the Imperial family with no guard, and in the 
frequented thoroughfares ; they appeared to have 
no fears for their personal safety. 

Montmorency is situated two miles from Enghien. 
From the latter to the former place is a most 
delightful ride, embracing varied views. Many 
villas and chatelets are situated upon the hillsides, 
embosomed in the dense foliage, amid a forest of 
fruit-trees laden with the early Montmorency 
cherries. The Duchesse de Berri formerly had a 
palace here; it has also been the residence of many 
Bourbon families. The inhabitants boast of having 
the purest, most delicately tinted stained glass in 
their church, which is Gothic, of the twelfth cen- 
tury. The rustic mansion called l'Ermitage (the 
Hermitage) was the residence of Rousseau from 



France and her People. 193 

1756 to 1758. Here he wrote his "Nouvelle 
Heloise," that celebrated book. Grety, the composer, 
died here in 18 13. Rousseau's house and grounds 
are public; on Sunday it is a place of resort for the 
working class. Here there are music, swings, 
arbors, shades, and the same entertainments as 
abound at every public garden. 

The Hermitage is distinguished as having been 
occupied by Robespierre a short period prior to 
his execution, in 1794. It was then national prop- 
erty. The donkey-riding at Montmorency is an old 
and honored custom. There the docile animals stand 
saddled, with their wide, ample, red velvet cushioned 
pillions, awaiting the young riders; yes, and the 
aged, as many advanced in years make the tour of 
the mountain. The principal stand is in front of 
Le Cheval Blanc (The White Horse). They stand 
under an ample shed. I have counted thirty equip- 
ped. The ride is novel, exhilarating and inexpen- 
sive. A train runs every hour to Enghien, occupy- 
ing only a few minutes. 

To Paris every day seems the programme. Hav- 
ing leisure on our arrival, we concluded to spend the 
day in the Bibliotheque Imperiale (Imperial Library), 
that is the appellation under the present regime; 
during the reign of Napoleon I. in 1792, it was 
called Bibliotheque du Roi, and in 1848 it was 

called the National Library. This immense pile of 
17 



194 France and her People. 

masonry covers a large portion of four streets, front- 
ing upon the Rue Richelieu, the rear upon the Rue 
Vivienne, the north on the Rue Colbert, the south 
on the Rue Neuve des Petits Champs. Part of the 
building, as early as 1661, was the palace of Cardinal 
Mazarin, the minister of Louis XIII. and Louis XIV. 
We made our entry by the Rue Richelieu. The 
library is guarded by soldiers ; day and night they 
patrol around the exterior of the building. 

We entered by a massive door up a flight of 
stone steps, deposited our parasols, and then com- 
menced the day's work, for indeed these sight-see- 
ings are tiresome, mentally and bodily. This 
library is the largest in the world. The volumes are 
all carefully and durably bound. Five millions of 
books and two millions of manuscripts constitute this 
vast collection. If the bookcases that contain these 
volumes should be placed in a continuous line they 
would extend twenty miles ; from ceiling to floor, 
and floor to ceiling, nought but a sea of literature, a 
boundary line of books as far as the eye could 
reach. The curiosities are varied, and many very 
ancient ; among them an Apocalypse printed from 
solid blocks of wood, a Bible printed by Gutten- 
berg, a translation of the " Ars Moriendi," 
printed by Caxton, and two magnificent globes, 
twelve feet in diameter, made at Venice, mounted in 
brass and metal pedestals. The Geographical col 



France and her People. 195 

lection comprises 300,000 maps. The ground-floor 
is devoted to the Engravings; they consist of 8000 
volumes and 1,300,000 plates. We passed several 
hours in giving merely a cursory glance at the 
whole. By giving your name and address, and the 
■ title of the book desired, the librarians will render 
all necessary information, and facilitate your finding 
the volume required. 

The reading and writing rooms are a great accom- 
modation to many of all classes. I saw great num- 
bers of soldiers engaged in writing, and dictating 
letters to the clerks, who are paid by the govern- 
ment to write for those incapable of using the pen. 
The Cabinet of Medals and Antiquities is the rarest 
and most valuable collection in Europe ; the 
specimens number 200,000. The Grecian, Roman 
and Egyptian curiosities are exceedingly interesting; 
among them are cameos, vases, and seals from the 
earliest epoch. There is here a cameo represent- 
ing the Emperor Germanicus borne off by an eagle; 
it is a superb cutting. Under glass are relics from 
the tomb of Childeric, who died in 481. 

The agate cup of the Ptolemies, from the treasury 
of St. Denis, is elaborately carved with representa- 
tions of the mysteries of Bacchus and Ceres. In 
the centre of the principal salon is a glass cabinet 
containing the Apotheosis of Agustus. Here is 
also the largest cameo in the world, the Sardonyx, 



.196 France and her People. 

being nearly one foot in diameter. Among the fif- 
teen figures represented are ^Eneas, Augustus, Julius 
Caesar, Tiberius, Agrippina and others. It was 
removed here from the treasury of the church of St. 
Chapelle. Many erroneously believed it was a 
representation of a triumphal procession of Joseph 
in Egypt. In this way I could enumerate many 
precious curiosities, at the risk, perhaps, of wearying 
those whose tastes differ from mine. 

St. Gratien is situated two miles from Enghien, — 
a most delightful drive, by the borders of the lake 
and through wooded roads. The great allurement 
to this spot is the chateau or country residence of 
the Princess Mathilde. The pleasure-grounds are 
extensive and highly ornamented by statues, exotics, 
and numerous walks and drives. A stream which 
empties into the lake at Enghien flows through her 
domains. This stream is crossed by a drawbridge. 
When the Princess desires she sails down in a gon- 
dola, which looks beautiful, and is the admiration of 
the guests at Enghien. Princess Matilde is held in 
great esteem, and bears the reputation of being gen- 
erous, very amiable, and possessed of a fine literary 
taste and talent. 

Hearing continual rumors of war, we returned 
to Paris, anxious to obtain the correct state of affairs. 
After a pleasant trip we arrived at our former hotel, 
and being fatigued soon retired, but not to sleep* 



France and her People, 197 

this is one of the first nights of my life that Mor- 
pheus failed to overpower me. The long continued 
cries of "Bas la Prusse" (Down with Prussia), "d 
Berlin " (to Berlin), resounded until morning 
dawned. The women of this fair city joined their 
inharmonious voices with the canaille from La 
Vilette, Belleville, and Montmarte; these are the 
insurrectionary quarters of Paris, the hot-bed of all 
disturbances, riots, and lawlessness. Now their cry- 
ing was to increase the war spirit and enlist quiet 
persons into their ranks. The police did not interfere 
with them ; if they had, a revolution would have 
been the result. No harm occurred ; it only demon- 
strated how determined and eager the populace was 
for war. There was only one dissenting voice in the 
Senate, and that was no other than M. Thiers. We 
learned that war would have to be declared. The 
entire city was in a commotion ; soldiers hurrying 
hither and thither, regiments coming in, others 
changing barracks. A general movement was com- 
menced by the inhabitants ; during a short walk I 
counted eighty-eight furniture wagons leaving the 
city because war must come, and hundreds from the 
suburbs were hastening into Paris, rendering the 
confusion indescribable. 

The first evening in Paris I was requested to pur 
chase a bottle of " Cognac " for a friend. I entered a 

shop ; the lady was extremely polite. I inquired 
17* 



198 France and her People. 

for a bottle of the best ; it was produced. I laid a 
ten-franc piece on the counter and left. I had only 
gone a few steps when I was stopped. There was 
the lady, quite excited. She said, "Madam, have 
the kindness to accept your change." I said, " What 
change ?" " Why your change ; here are six francs 
(one dollar and twenty cents) that belong to you." 
I thanked the honest lady, and hastened to inform 
my friends that Cognac would be a very cheap 
beverage. 

Each class or trade in Paris has its own balls, not 
mingling with others. The fishmongers and huck- 
sters have the most brilliant balls of the season ; 
their assembly rooms are over the new Central Mar- 
ket Pavilions. I was told they exhibit more diamonds 
and jewels than any other class. A stranger enter- 
ing, and not having been told, would find it difficult 
to discover what class of society he was in. They 
dance with native grace — all do in France — dress 
with taste, and behave with the utmost decorum and 
propriety. The waiters have their balls. Many 
persons buy tickets and attend as spectators, to view 
the style and learn the ways of humanity among the 
lowly. The servants of the Imperial family and 
dignitaries of State have very extensive balls, never 
mingling with others. . The masked balls are very 
fashionable, and attended by the most refined ; they 
are also held by the different cliques. 



France and her People. 199 

More consideration for the feelings and comfort 
of servants is manifested in France than in any other 
country I ever inhabited or visited. The children 
from their earliest infancy are taught to treat their 
servants with marked politeness and respect. I 
never heard a French child reply rudely or abruptly 
to a servant. This is the great secret why French 
servants are more faithful, polite, and kind to chil- 
dren. In the public gardens I have observed the 
many trivial acts of children towards their bonnes, all 
showing a fondness for them. This also applies to 
the treatment servants receive from their masters and 
mistresses ; not that they are all worthy, any more 
than in other countries. The greater number are 
intelligent, active, and very ingenious. 

Upon the occasion of balls in mid winter at the 
Tuileries immense fires of wood are built in the 
courtyard of the palace, where the coachmen and 
footmen are obliged to wait. The scene is pictu- 
resque; the lurid glare of the flames illuminating the 
entire space, which is large, the fires rendering these 
nuclei as alluring as the oases are to the faint and 
weary travellers in a lonely desert. I merely allude 
to the above circumstance to show that the coach- 
men are never neglected, or suffer from unkindness. 
Every servant man and woman, besides their wages, 
have daily a good bottle of wine. Some may re- 
mark, "They are only half paid; wages in this 



200 France and her People. 

country and all others in Europe are low." It is so ; 
but provisions, clothing, fuel, railway fare, carriage 
hire, room or house rent, are all very much lower 
than where they receive high wages. I feel con- 
fident in saying that in no other country are the 
industrious, honest, sober working classes as well off 
as in France. 




CHAPTER XX. 

Paris the morning after war was declared — Ball at Enghien — Depar- 
ture from Enghien — Paris — Versailles — Prince Imperial — Bourse 
— False news — Prussian spies — Cent Gardes. 

"^HE morning after war was declared I found 
-*- myself in Paris. The enthusiasm had settled 
into stern reality ; every man was now a soldier. 
The National Guards were ordered out ; regiments 
were leaving ; flags were flying in the breeze, bands 
playing, drums beating, men shouting ; " a Berlin" 
" a bas Bismarck" resounded from morn until morn 
again. The Emperor having granted the privilege 
of singing the Marseillaise, which had been forbid- 
den, it was now echoed from street to street and 
from station to station. Groups of men clustered in 
the Place Vendome ; the boulevards were thronged 
with anxious men and soldiers awaiting orders. I 
returned to Enghien sad and depressed. 

The second and last ball at Enghien-les-Bains took 
place a few days after the declaration of war. But 
what a change. The music was the same, the hall 
unchanged, the ladies all in beauteous array ; but 
the life of the company had gone. It was mockery 
to try and dance without the heart. The elastic steps 

201 



202 France and her People. 

were forced ; the graceful forms moved mechanically ; 
the languid eyes wandered in search of the loved 
ones that were departed ; and such sad faces I never 
beheld in a ball-room. Not an officer in the hall; 
all had gone to the frontier. How could the mothers, 
sisters, the affianced brides be gay ? We imbibed 
the sorrowful spirit, and early retired from the gay, 
sad scene. 

We bade adieu to Enghien and her peaceful lake 
shores with a sigh, and arrived in Paris in time to 
see a regiment leave. The soldiers marched well ; 
this nation has always been renowned for its 
marching. Their uniforms were new, and their 
bayonets glittered in the sunbeams. Flowers were 
strewn in their pathway; flowers were at the point 
of their bayonets ; flowers made into garlands by 
loving hands encircled their necks. A number of 
women walked close beside the dear ones. I saw 
one fine, noble looking fellow bend his head and 
impress fond kisses upon a curly-headed boy he 
tightly pressed to his heart ; his wife carried his gun. 
At the depot, for those who had hearts, it was a sor- 
rowful sight. The grief of some of the women was 
loud and boisterous, while that of others was deep 
and quiet. I had often wished to see a regiment 
leave. I have been gratified, and can assure my 
readers truthfully I never wish to see another such 
sight. 



Fj'ance and Jier People. 20 



j 



A regiment was expected to leave the station at 
midnight ; to the surprise of the conductor and others 
belonging to the railroad, about sixty women ac- 
companied their husbands, and no persuasion could 
induce them to leave the depot. When the doors 
were opened they made a desperate rush, and swore 
they would go and fight those Prussians or die in the 
attempt. Of course that could not be allowed. The 
conductor induced them to take a large carriage by 
themselves ; it would be more suitable, and they 
would not leave until some time later. The women 
were deceived ; the train went on ; when they awoke 
there they were at the depot, and their loved ones 
far on to the frontier. The conductor was absent at 
that time, or, no doubt, he would have fared roughly. 
Their anger knew no bounds. The foolish women 
had to return home and brood over their disappointed 
expectations. 

We concluded to bid adieu to distracted Paris. 
Being seated in our carriage, the attentive landlord 
must pay his respects, and wish us tin bon voyage ; 
he also remarked, " we are certain of being in Berlin 
for the fete of our Emperor, the fifteenth of August." 
I replied politely, " Remember, it is a long road to 
Berlin." He said with fervor, " We go under the old 
flags of Jena, Marengo, and Austerlitz to fight — Vive 
Napoleon!" We left him in his military glory. 

A most delightful trip we enjoyed to Versailles. 



204 France and her People. 

Among the views from the line of rail is a succession 
of thrifty towns, gardens, and fields groaning under 
the weight of a luxurious harvest, the poor man's 
reward for days of toil and heat endured. The sight 
of Paris and its environs in the distance ever affords 
some new object to attract the attention. The Arc 
de Triomphe and the Invalides always remind one of 
the builder, whose remains repose under that gilded 
dome. The Seine for several miles is in view, winding 
through meadows and fruited orchards. The clus- 
tering vines almost exclude the sight of the cottages 
that dot the plain. The view of Mont Valerien is 
very fine ; it rises six hundred feet above the Seine. 
The next station is St. Cloud. After a short tunnel 
we emerged into the Imperial deer park belonging 
to the Palace of St. Cloud. The private railway of 
the Emperor runs parallel with this road, and at this 
point enters the grounds. 

After passing a long tunnel, which has lamps a 
few feet apart the entire length — such caution is 
taken to prevent accidents — we were at the pictur- 
esque Ville d Avray, the Sevres station. The first 
interesting object of art one beholds on entering the 
city of Versailles is the statue of General Hoche, 
situated in a square, and surrounded by an iron rail- 
ing, which also encloses a beautiful collection of 
shrubs and flowers. This brave young soldier was 
in the ranks at sixteen years of age, a General-in- 



France and her People. 205 

Chief at twenty-five, and died at the premature age 
of twenty-nine. There are three railways from this 
city to Paris ; one, termed the American railway, 
being horse carriages, which are large, each divided 
into two compartments — one of these runs crossways 
of the carriage, and only seats three persons; it is 
well worth an additional ten cents, for you are pri- 
vate. The other division carries eighteen inside 
and twenty outside. They are driven by four horses, 
and occupy two hours in the transit. We had the 
good fortune to obtain a pretty apartment, near the 
main entrance to the Palace park, and in view of the 
fountain Neptune. The great waters play the first 
Sunday of each month from May to October. Dur- 
ing this season Versailles is the rendezvous for tens 
of thousands ; it is computed that there are never 
less than thirty thousand persons present. 

The Prince Imperial has endeared himself to the 
masses by his gentlemanly deportment ; his natural 
kindness of heart has won him many friends. Among 
other accomplishments he is quite proficient in the 
dramatic art. An amateur entertainment at the 
Tuileries was given during the past winter, when 
the Prince, assisted by his friends, demonstrated to 
the satisfaction of several hundred guests his ability, 
and they were all unanimous in their expressions of 
delight at his proficiency and style. As I heard a 

distinguished gentleman remark, " We must all ad- 
18 



206 France and her People. 

mit the young Prince is very clever, in the English 
sense of the term." 

Paris again, with a view of visiting the Bourse 
(Exchange). The concourse of people was so great 
we had to wait two hours, in consequence of the 
arrest of a Prussian spy in front of this building, 
which is situated in an open space fronting on the 
Rue Vivienne. The Boursefor beauty of architec- 
ture cannot be surpassed. It is in the Grecian style, 
commenced in 1808, and completed in 1826. It 
consists of a parallelogram 212 feet long by 126 feet 
in width ; the surrounding gallery is supported by a 
colonnade of 66 Corinthian pillars, which affords a 
spacious sheltered promenade for the merchants to 
discuss their mercantile affairs. Stone steps extend 
the entire length of the edifice. At the corners 
stand four figures, emblematical of Commerce, Con- 
sular Justice, Industry, and Agriculture. The inte- 
rior is a vast hall 116 feet long and 76 feet wide, 
with the capacity of containing two thousand per- 
sons. The ceilings are frescoed ; at one extremity 
a parquet is railed off for the sworn brokers ; no 
others allowed to enter. In another railed-off space 
in the centre, named the Corbeille, the offers are 
made in loud tones. The gallery is the best location 
to view the tumultuous scene ; the shouting is fright- 
ful, the noise deafening, the excited gestures of 
the speculators convey the idea that you are in 



France and her People. 207 

the midst of the great maniac establishment at Cour- 
bevoie. 

The Bibliotheque du Commerce (the Commercial 
Library), belonging to the Exchange, is very exten- 
sive ; a wide open space in front is an omnibus and 
carriage stand. This proved to us an exciting day. 
A telegraphic dispatch announcing a great victory 
was proclaimed by thousands ; it was instantaneous, 
the effect as though the contents of an electric bat- 
tery had been infused into each system ; simultaneous 
shouts rent the air of, " Vive V Empereur ! Vive la 
France /" Up went the flags, as if by some magical 
agency, from private and public buildings, from the 
printing offices, from the horses' heads, and from 
every available position. 

The Hotel du Louvre was a mass of bunting; 
every window was draped with the red, white and 
blue. The nation's glory gleamed from every eye. 
The streets became a moving mass of joyous beings ; 
each in his patriotic ardor rushed into the streets to 
lend his voice to the chorus of jubilant war songs. 
It was transient as a meteor, as a flash of lierhtninsr 
illumining the horizon for a moment, then rendering 
the succeeding darkness more dense from the sudden 
glare. Thus it was to-day. How can I even now 
break the appalling news ? It was a vile fabrication. 
A man desirous to have the stocks advanced tele- 
graphed to the Exchange that the French army had 



208 France and her People. 

won a glorious victory. An official dispatch con- 
tradicting the statement soon spread dismay, and 
settled gloom upon every countenance. Then the 
flags came down ; the sunshine of hope w r as blasted. 
Such a sudden transition from joy to sorrow was 
never beheld. The originator of the falsehood was 
arrested, and confined in the Conciergerie (prison) ; 
his final fate I never learned. 

A few days later the disastrous disturbances at La 
Vilette, caused by the death of several innocent 
persons and more than a dozen policemen while on 
duty, were rumored. The Pompiers, a class of sol- 
diers who are also the firemen, many of them having 
just arrived in Paris from the other cities and towns, 
to be in readiness should their assistance be required, 
were surprised by an attack from Prussian spies and 
street rowdies in their barracks in the Rue de Flan- 
dre. The perpetrators were all arrested and con- 
signed to prison. 

The Cent Gardes (the Hundred Guards) are the 
Emperor's body-guard. Part of them are always in 
the Tuileries or other palaces when the Emperor is 
there. They have barracks of their own ; they are 
from a better class of society than the privates, — all 
educated men. They present a splendid appearance 
upon the street, being all of a uniform height, six 
feet, and well proportioned, equipped in light blue 
cloth, with gold epaulettes, red silk sash, sword, 



France and her People, 209 

gilt helmet, with a long white plume drooping 
gracefully downward — this is their full dress. They 
also wear the three-cornered black chapeau. After 
Sedan they were dispersed; many of them going 
into the ranks. 

Previous to our departure from Paris for Versailles 
I called on Dr. F., who informed me that only one 
of those gay young officers that made the ball 
so fine remained ; the residue were either killed, 
wounded, or taken prisoners and sent to Belgium or 
Prussia. Never in such a brief period has there 
been so great a change. We met a detachment of 
Francs-Tireurs (volunteers) ; their uniform is unique : 
a dark-blue blouse of woollen, with a leather girdle, 
and pantaloons to match, and Tyrolese hat and 
feather. They were not armed ; they marched tolera- 
bly well for raw recruits. 

At every point soldiers ; many coming in to join 
the army at the front. In driving we were com- 
pelled to stop and allow five regiments to pass, three 
of them cavalry. The excitement was intense ; mul- 
titudes followed them to the depot, the whole crowd 
cheering at every step. As soldiers advanced, " Vive 
la guerre /" " Vive la France ! " was the cry ; and the 
women were as demonstrative as the men — even 
more noisy in their songs and more frantic in ges- 
tures and acclamations of sorrow. 

The newspaper stands (kiosques) are surrounded 
18* 



210 France and her People. 

hours before the distribution of the papers. Small 
circles stand around the Bourse. The Boulevards 
are crowded ; the railway stations packed with goods 
and chattels of every description. The excitement 
is enough to throw a person into a fever. Thou- 
sands are flying as if from the monsoon of Sahara. 
No wonder, for business is dull, failures many, and 
fear of some terrible calamity is upon every heart. 
None look light-hearted ; no nation ever changed so 
quickly ; not a smile greets one, not a sally of mirth, 
or a word of pleasantry. Stern war news is all they 
desire. 




CHAPTER XXI. 

Departure of the Emperor and Prince Imperial for the war — Bois de 
Boulogne — Fortifications — Avenue de l'lmperatrice — American 
Sanitary Commission — Regiment leaving — Cantiniere — Mont de 
Piete — Park of Vincennes and Castle. 

~^HE Emperor and Prince Imperial and suite left 
-^ the station of St. Cloud by the early Imperial 
train. The adieus were sorrowful ; the parting of 
that family can scarcely be described. The Empress 
bore up with becoming fortitude. What a sad trial 
to part with her only child, and he, at his tender 
age, to be exposed to fierce volleys of balls and 
shells, and to witness the carnage of human life. It 
is too fearful for a reality. The Empress suffered 
poignant sorrow ; still, by her self-sacrificing con- 
duct, she won the admiration of all who beheld the 
last love greetings. When that mother and son met 
again, how changed was their position. It was on 
the shores of England, where they now reside, loved, 
honored, and respected by high and low, rich and 
poor. In the seclusion of Chiselhurst, or wherever 
she may dwell, the Empress Eugenie will always 
receive the respectful homage of the worthy, virtuous 
inhabitants by whom she may be surrounded. 

211 



212 France and her People. 

What a changed aspect the lovely Bois de Bou- 
logne bore this day, turned into a grazing farm. 
Ten thousand beeves and six thousand sheep were 
already nipping every bud and blossom, stripping 
off all the leaves within their reach. There they are 
to remain until the siege commences, which it is 
predicted will soon take place. Every freight train 
on this road is composed of cattle vans ; thousands 
are expected here before another week elapses. 
The fortifications progress rapidly ; hundreds to-day 
were out viewing them. The cannons are mounted. 
To me they present a terrific foreboding. Many 
stately mansions have been demolished, as they 
stood in the way of the defences. We directed our 
drive through the Avenue Josephine. Here we 
alighted to have a view of the white marble statue 
that has been erected to the memory of the Empress 
Josephine. It is a superbly chiselled monument, 
worthy of the person to whom it is dedicated. From 
here we proceeded to the Avenue de Flmperatrice ; 
this street is 150 yards in breadth and three-quarters 
of a mile in length, leading by the Arc de Triomphe 
to the Champs Elysees. 

Dr. T. W. Evans' beautiful residence is situated on 
this aristocratic and fashionable avenue. The doc- 
tor is a most indefatigable worker in sanitary affairs, 
devoting his precious time, money, and every energy 
for the relief of the wounded. The American Sani- 



France and her People. 213 

tary Commission the doctor has organized and 
established in the building he occupies for his pro- 
fessional duties. On the Rue de la Paix I had the 
pleasure of doing some work for the cause, and my 
daughter was a member of the committee. After 
the fall of the Empire the American ambulance was 
opened in the Grand Hotel. The first French am- 
bulance that left for the frontier caused a great 
patriotic demonstration. • I among the multitude 
saw it leave, the Palais d'lndustrie here being the 
starting point. The feeling was general to help the 
wounded. Boxes were placed in all the shops, 
hotels, and railway stations to collect for the soldiers. 
A universal feeling prevailed to throw open private 
houses and arrange them for the sufferers when they 
should return. This was not only in Paris, but in 
every city and town in France. Some families 
offered as many as twenty beds, others only one, 
according to their means. 

As we turned towards the depot we found the 
street blocked. Soon we had the sorrowful pleasure 
of seeing another regiment leave. How soul-stirring 
those skilled musicians poured forth their martial 
strains ! The poor fellows looked sad, and no won- 
der, for they were marching on to death. They 
were all in bright new attire, their bayonets glistened 
in the sunbeams, and flowers in bouquets and 
wreaths adorned them. Then came La Cantiniere 



214 France and her People. 

in a chariot, drawn by two black horses, gaily capa- 
risoned. Streamers, flags, and flowers hung in luxu- 
rious profusion. Poor woman, this was her last fond 
look on home, children, and friends. 

She was brutally murdered while discharging her 
duty on the battle-field. When in the act of giving 
brandy to a wounded comrade she was seized by 
three Prussian soldiers, and both her arms chopped 
off above the elbow ; she died the next day. Her 
poor husband wrapped her in his military cloak and 
consigned her to the earth. The tales of murder, 
plunder, base barbarity and brutish violence, did I 
relate them all, many would disbelieve that such 
atrocious deeds could be perpetrated in this the 
nineteenth century. The above is a simple, true 
statement of the fact as related to me ; it came direct 
from a returned soldier of her regiment. 

In driving I frequently noticed the sign Mont de 
Piete. I became very curious to know why a Mount 
of Piety should be located in the crowded business 
thoroughfares. I called our coachman's attention to 
the sign, and asked him if he could tell me the 
meaning of those words. With a shrug of his shoul- 
ders and a peculiar smile he replied : " Whenever a 
poor fellow gets out of money and has no friends, all 
he has to do is to step into one of these Monts de 
Piete and he gets relief; he could even raise money 
on his boots or his old hat ; but you have to pay 



France and her People. 215 

them a nice little sum for the accommodation, or at 
the expiration of a limited period they will sell your 
property." I was not fully satisfied, and asked him 
why those offices were called " Piete ? " His reply 
amused me : " Is it not a pious act to help the poor 
and hungry?" I said most certainly; but these 
men are paid for their money. " Yes, I know that. 
Will you please tell me, madam, who there is in this 
world that does not receive some return for his gold 
and donations. In my country the proprietors of all 
the Monts de Piete are under the surveillance of the 
police ; they cannot cheat a poor man, or charge 
him more than the law allows them for the use of 
their money." I thanked our coachman for his in- 
formation. Still I think these offices are very wrongly 
named. It appears to me a desecration of the word 
" piety." 

The woods of Vincennes are of ancient origin ; as 
early as the days of St. Louis they were a favorite 
hunting ground of the French monarchs. In 1731 
Louis XV. made great alterations and replanted the 
forest. It has been encroached upon by railroads 
and military works. Within the last few years it 
has been laid out as a park, having the Bois de Bou- 
logne for a model. There are two roads, equally 
pleasant, leading to the artificial Lac des Minimes, a 
clear, silvery sheet of water supporting three islands 
upon its watery bosom ; the smallest one is con- 



21 6 France and her People. 

nected to the mainland by a bridge. Here, in this 
romantic spot, stands a restaurant. The cascade 
which supplies the lake is formed by two rivulets — 
Ruisseau de Nogent and Ruisseau de Minimes. 
Following the windings of the last-named, we tra- 
versed the most picturesque portion of these woods. 
Near the source of this stream is situated the camp 
of St. Maur. These woods abound in fine scenery. 
Turning down an avenue we suddenly came to the 
Ronde de Beaute (Round of Beauty), truthfully 
named. From this point the valley of the Marne is 
displayed in varied beauties. Advancing we came 
to the Imperial Model Ferme Napoleon, where deli- 
cious milk can be procured. 

Another short drive and we were beside a fairy 
lake, the Lac de Gravelle, which is connected with 
the Lac de St. Mande by a rivulet bearing the same 
name. The environs of this lake are exceedingly 
romantic ; it is located in a hollow, with green grassy 
banks and a deep tangled shrubbery, with stately 
trees to vary the foliage. These sequestered borders 
are the peaceful abode of numerous gay songsters 
that warble forth their matin and evening lays undis- 
turbed by wanton boys or the sportsman's random 
shot. We passed the Asylum for Invalid Workmen, 
opened in 1857, which is situated within this park. 

The Chateau of Vincennes was founded in the 
twelfth century, was fitted up with elegance, and 



France and her People. 217 

occupied by the royal families. As you trace the 
history of most of these old palaces you discover 
that they have been converted into many different 
uses. Louis XV., in 1740, turned this palace into a 
porcelain factory, which was afterwards removed to 
Sevres. Thus this building has been subverted into 
different manufactories. It was also used for a State 
prison, and many illustrious persons have been con- 
fined within its walls, such as Conde, the Due 
d'Enghien, Mirabeau, and the conspirators against 
the National Assembly in May, 1848. 

The guide gave us a melancholy account of the 
shooting of the Due d'Enghien, who was executed 
in this fortress. All the circumstances of this event 
are so well known that I need not relate them here. 
In 1 8 16 Louis XVIII. caused the duke's remains to 
be disinterred and placed in the chapel, and he 
erected a monument to his memory. The chapel 
has a beautiful Gothic front ; for its age I admired 
it. The foundations were laid in 1248, and it was 
completed in 1552. It contains some splendid 
stained glass windows ; one has a fine portrait of 
Diane de Poitiers, the favorite of Henry II. 

On our way to and from these woods of note, 

chateau and chapel, we had to pass the Barriere du 

Trone. The origin of the name is from a ceremony 

that was performed here on the 26th of August, 

1660, when Louis XIV. received the homage of the 
19 



218 France and her People. 

city of Paris, in consequence of the ratification of the 
peace of the Pyrenees. 

The lofty fluted Doric columns of the Barriere du 
Trone were commenced in 1788, and only finished 
in 1847. They are adorned with two reliefs; those 
towards the city are emblematic of Commerce and 
Industry, the others of Victory and Peace. Their 
summits are terminated by a statue in bronze of St. 
Louis and Philippe Auguste, by Dumont. 

Thus, even in war times, we could enjoy a day 
amid the ancient and renowned works of art, and 
nature's lovely haunts. We arrived late at Ver- 
sailles, and found our Femme du Concierge (porter's 
wife) in great sorrow ; her poor mother's little cot 
had been fired upon by the Prussians, and nought 
remained of all they had of this world's goods ex- 
cept a heap of ruins. Her sister was killed, and her 
poor old mother was somewhere on the road to 
Versailles begging from house to house, and trudg- 
ing on foot near Nancy. This sad news she learned 
from a person who saw the house in flames. Oh, 
how she was sobbing and wailing for her family's 
distress. " Yes," she said, " I will teach my dear 
boy Henry to hate that race, and he shall help to 
avenge our wrongs, if not before, at least when I am 
dead." Thus the poor little woman raved. No 
word could comfort her, nought soothe her. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Park at Versailles — Old marine — Exciting scene in Paris — Prussian 
Spy — Prince Imperial's first battle — Fountains of Versailles — A 
defeat — Touching incident. 

r I ^HE excitement of yesterday caused me to hail 
-*- with joy the anticipation of a day to spend in 
the grand old palace park. At an early hour, camp- 
stools in hand, we hastened to those venerable 
shades, whose historical memories ever furnish 
thoughts for hours of reverie. We wandered to the 
grand Trianon, a handsome villa situated a mile 
from the palace. It was built by Louis XIV. for 
Madame de Maintenon. The apartments are gorge- 
ous, and a great curiosity: here is a magnificent 
basin of malachite, presented by the Emperor of 
Russia to the Emperor Napoleon I. on the conclu- 
sion of the treaty of Tilsit. 

The Petit Trianon, a short distance north, was 
erected by Louis XV. for Madame Dubarry. The 
whole surrounding is beautiful It was a favorite 
resort of Marie Antoinette and the Duchesse 
d'Orleans. After a short rest we proceeded by 

another avenue to the canal, which is in the form of 

219 



220 France and her People, 

a cross — a fine stream filled with the finny tribe. A 
permit can be obtained for angling. 

The Tapis Vert (Green Carpet) is a long, smooth, 
narrow lawn ; the grass is kept closely clipped. 
Here the famous fountain of Bassin d'Apollon is 
situated, surrounded with tritons, dolphins, nymphs. 
Amphitrite and Neptune are represented as seated 
in an emormous shell. We found some lovely ferns 
and flowers in the crevices around the basin; they 
had sprung up between the masonry. Again we 
rest, and survey the different groups. A band of 
twelve ladies are making lint. How rapidly their 
fingers move at their labor of love ; some are sewing, 
some drawing, many reading ; a number of soldiers 
are loitering under the trees, it may be the last time 
they will ever behold this idolized spot. A large 
party, sixteen in number, has just arrived. They 
spread a snow-white cloth upon the grass, and are 
very particular to place grandma and grandpapa at 
the head of the feast. They are quite near us ; — 
what a happy family. 

Bottle after bottle of wine was placed in a row; 
then the roasted fowls, leg of mutton, ham, and a 
plentiful supply of bread; then a hamper of fruit. 
They all exhibited tokens of their good health. I 
looked on, wishing that such happy rural enjoyments 
might be the lot of the disconsolate thousands by 
whom we were surrounded. If we had lingered 



France and her People. 221 

longer here, our day would end with our explora- 
tions scarcely commenced. We therefore turned 
into a secluded avenue, and had proceeded only a 
short distance when our attention was drawn to a 
singular movement on the grass. We hurried on- 
ward, and soon gained the spot. A horrible sight 
met our gaze; an old marine was in convulsions. 
Others joined us ; we all rendered assistance. The 
lodge-keeper brought brandy and other restoratives, 
which were quickly administered. We had the sat- 
isfaction in half an hour to see the poor man seated, 
his back against a tree, and able to converse. He 
informed his anxious auditors that he had served 
his time in the navy. He produced his medal; 
he had been working several years as a stone 
mason. Since war was declared work failed him, 
and he had walked a long distance seeking employ- 
ment, but was unsuccessful. He had come into the 
park to rest his weary limbs, when this sudden 
attack overpowered him. The tears coursed down 
his furrowed cheeks as he energetically exclaimed, 
" Vive r Empereur — mon Empereur. I never wish to 
survive a defeat of our arms, or to see our flag laid 
low." 

This sudden outburst of patriotism was electrify- 
ing. I seized a proffered hat and passed it to the 
attentive listeners. The result was a collection of 

many bright -coins. He went on his way comforted, 
19* 



222 France and her People. 

but broken-hearted : he lived at the village of St. 
Cloud. Wishing for one more walk in the palatial 
garden, we entered a sequestered path, edged with 
ferns and flowers of native growth, and here 
remained until the farewell rays of the sun bade us 
depart. 

We saw hundreds working on the fortifications 
around Paris to-day. This is a masterly piece of 
engineering; the narrow space allotted for us to 
pass appears frightful from the car windows. The 
deep excavations below are progressing rapidly. 
Paris is now under martial law; the military are 
stationed on the Place de la Concorde, on the 
bridge, and in front of the Corps Legislatif opposite, 
to be in readiness should an outbreak occur. This 
is in consequence of General Pallacio's election to 
fill General Le Bceuf 's place as minister of war. The 
affair was consummated without trouble. We were 
proceeding down the Rue St. Honore when a tre- 
mendous uproar and a frantic rush caused the 
coachman to throw open wide the coach door, and 
say, in breathless haste, "Fly, fly, good lady, into 
some store. The mob is coming." I was not slow 
in obeying the order. It was a wild scene, the shop- 
keepers all closing their shutters, while the upper 
stories and roofs were thronged by the occupants. 
It was only the populace demonstrating their 
approval of General Pallacio's appointment. 



France and her People. 223 

One evening our bell was pulled violently. As 
we were situated, we knew not who might be at the 
door. It was Jule, the landlord's man of many- 
works ; he was pale and terribly excited. When he 
became calm enough to speak he said : " I could 
not sleep until I came and told you what a narrow 
escape we all made." 

He went on to say, that at dusk a large, fine 
looking lady, representing herself to be English, 
dressed in the extreme of fashion, made application 
for apartments. M. Le R. showed her a suite con- 
sisting of seven elegantly furnished rooms, and 
opening into a flower garden. She only required 
them for one night, and wished one room. This 
he could not supply, but in his good nature he 
sent Jule to show several houses to the poor lady, 
who spoke French very imperfectly. None suited 
her. She then bade Jule good evening. Instead 
of returning home he followed her at a distance. 
Others were attracted by her calling at so many 
houses; several joined Jule, and finally the Sergent 
de Ville arrested her, and amid a crowd she was 
taken to the station house. There the lady was 
examined, and she proved to be a Prussian spy of the 
male sex. His letters and papers instructed him to 
find out all he could about Versailles, and report at 
once to his confederates in Paris. They gave no clue 
to any names or address of others implicated. When 



224 France and her People. 

we left, the gentleman was still in prison. Jule con- 
sidered himself quite a hero. 

On the second day of August, 1870, at eleven 
A. m., the young Prince took his position on the 
heights of Saarbruck beside his father and staff. 
The sanguinary conflict lasted until one o'clock 
p. M. • By his sangfroid and coolness he testified 
that he was worthy of the name he bears. An old 
officer remarked to me : " In time he will stand fire, 
as reckless of danger as his great uncle was." 
Aged veterans shed tears when they gazed on the 
pale youthful brow of their Prince. He preserved a 
cannon ball that fell beside his horse's feet, as a 
souvenir of his first battle and the first engagement 
of the campaign. The Emperor and Prince returned 
to Metz at four o'clock p. m. Thousands awaited 
tremblingly the news of the effect the first battle 
would produce on their little Prince ; the result was 
satisfactory. This victorious encounter was consi- 
dered a forerunner of a glorious successful war. 

French boys are taught from their cradles that 
they must be willing to die for their country. 
" Mourir pour la Pati'ie " is a household word. I 
have heard boys from six to twelve proclaim with 
vehemence that they expected to die for their 
country; it was all they desired. This sentiment 
grows with them, and increases as they advance to 
maturity. They adore the name of soldier, and have 



France and her People. 225 

always been, and will ever be brave, undaunted war- 
riors. It is a known fact that French soldiers can 
live on less food, less liquor, and endure greater 
hardships than those of any other nation. An 
English soldier must have his meat, but a French 
soldier will fight well on bread and brandy, and often 
bread alone. This was told me by a scarred veteran 
at Versailles. 

The fountains of Versailles are splendid. A 
stranger uninformed would naturally conclude that 
these waters had a potent charm for the healing of 
disease, or for the accumulation of wealth, that each 
drop if touched would turn into the beloved dollar, 
so eagerly do people haste to enter the gates, regard- 
less of everything else except to be in time for the 
first outbreak. The fountains play only twenty 
minutes. The same spirit possessed us as did the 
others. We followed the multitude, and thereby 
had the pleasure of standing in the rain ten minutes 
at the base of the fountain in excited expectation, 
when, by an invisible impulse, the waters burst forth 
from their secluded pipes. I counted eighty spouts 
playing at the same time from one fountain, all dif- 
fering in height, some more copious, some spouting 
upward with the force and swiftness of a sky rocket, 
then flowing back in graceful curvature to replenish 
again the stream. 

In the midst of tHs splendid aquatic scene the sun 



226 France and her People. 

burst forth with vivid brightness, rendering the effect 
most enchanting. Imagine a background of the 
deepest, darkest green illuminated by the golden 
rays of Sol's effulgent beams, and reflecting myriads 
of gems upon every leaf which was laden with rain- 
drops; they resembled emeralds studded with dia- 
monds. As I gazed with admiration, mournful 
thoughts intruded themselves upon me. I thought 
of the gay, light-hearted soldiers that one month 
ago, this day, had looked for the last time upon this 
lovely spot. My wandering thoughts proved true. 
We had scarcely reached our domicil when news 
came of a defeat, a terrible slaughter, hundreds of 
our brave soldiers, alas, dead or wounded, and their 
mutilated bodies shovelled into the earth in great 
haste, and frequently left to decay unburied. Can it 
be the splendid array I saw leave Paris three weeks 
ago, the pride of the Empire, with music, banners, 
flags, and flowers, the parting tokens of love ? Oh, 
the sorrow-stricken hearts this night ! What a bless- 
ing the noble Sisters of Charity are to the wounded. 
Thus far they have served faithfully, endured fatigue, 
hunger, heat, and all privations incidental to a battle- 
field. Many of them have met death in the act of 
bathing the brow of some dying warrior, or cooling 
the parched lips of a fallen foe. They have been 
shot in cold blood after a flag of truce had been 
hoisted. They are now reaping their reward in that 



France and her People. 227 

blissful abode "where the wicked cease from trou- 
bling, and the weary are at rest." 

At the Versailles depot a touching scene occurred. 
A few moments before starting, the colonel of the 
regiment, who was going out on the train, came 
upon the platform accompanied by his three sons, 
little boys. One, about ten years old, grasped his 
father tightly around the neck, and with his tiny 
hands clasped ; there he hung, saying in a tone of 
deep distress, " Dear father, do not go, do not leave 
us." The other two joined in imploring voices. 
The conductor unclasped those hands ; and as the 
father passed me I saw him wipe away a tear. 
Many stern-hearted men turned away to conceal 
their emotion. The soldiers sang the " Marseillaise " 
from station to station. In pleasant weather they 
always ride on the top of the carriages, which are 
provided with comfortable seats. 

This day we were doomed to witness those scenes 
that melt the heart. Arriving at Puteaux, another 
company of the Imperial Guard came on the train. 
A lad of fourteen, in peasant's dress, rushed by the 
guard on to the platform, exactly in front of my car- 
riage. He seized his brother, a soldier that was 
leaving, and cried in the most pathetic manner, " Oh, 
come home to our little cot; if you are killed, 
brother, mother will die. For the love of heaven 
come back, come back." Several men seized the 



228 France and her People. 

lad and thrust him inside. The bugles sounded a 
farewell blast, and the train moved onward. Not a 
day passed without some exciting event of this kind. 

Feeling oppressed and weary, I strolled into the 
palace park on my return from war-stricken Paris. 
I seated myself on an ancient stone bench and mused 
until day dwindled into twilight. A gentle touch 
startled me ; there stood close beside me a girl with 
clear black eyes, a thin hand extended, saying, 
" Please, madam, one little penny." — " For what ? " 
I said. " Oh, my dear father has gone to the war ; 
no work for mother. We are five, living in a garret." 
I asked her, " Have you no bread ? " — " Yes, good 
lady; the sisters give us bread twice a week." I 
wrote down her address, and that evening sent a 
faithful woman, who called and found the child's 
statement correct. 

By relating the sad tale to a generous butcher, a 
whole-souled provision dealer, and several others, 
food was supplied this family until I left. How 
many times I sighed for the wealth of a millionaire, 
that I could distribute food, fuel, and clothing to 
those suffering children of La belle France. I never 
met the child again. Should circumstances ever 
permit me to visit France once more, my first plea- 
sure will be to ascertain the fate of some of the poor 
honest inhabitants of Versailles, whose sufferings 
during the past winter were dreadful. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Excitements continual — Pavilion of Strasbourg — Bride's trousseau 
burnt — Washerwoman at Versailles — Anglo-American Ambu- 
lance. 

TTOR several weeks there was no news from the 
seat of war except through the English corres- 
pondents via Belgium. We were day and night in 
dread of the Prussians arriving. Fabulous stories 
were circulated daily. For a week they had been 
reported as near as Compiegne, and from there they 
would reach Versailles in twenty-four hours. Great 
consternation prevailed among all classes. The 
rich by hundreds were packing and removing their 
valuables, and fleeing in all directions. We imbibed 
the same spirit, and apprehending that dame rumor 
might prove true, we packed our boxes and sent 
them to Paris. They were deposited at our banker's, 
and there we left them. Almost daily we were in 
Paris. All the news that greeted us was a continua- 
tion of defeats. The tales of brutality were shock- 
ing ; the excitement of one horror would scarcely be 
past ere another would be current. 

We were driving down the Champs Elysees early 

one beautiful morning, not thinking of Strasbourg 
20 229 



230 France and her People. 

and what she was enduring, when we saw a crowd 
unusual even in war times. The coachman halted, 
and inquired if we would not like to drive across the 
Place de la Concorde and see the Pavilion de Stras- 
bourg. We could not penetrate the dense crowd ; but 
from our position we had a fine view of the shrine at 
which these enthusiastic people were worshipping. 

The figure was crowned with a massive wreath of 
gay flowers ; flags and streamers decked the cold 
marble ; bouquets in profusion were strewn around 
the monument; many vied with each other who 
would be the happy one that should present the 
most elegant floral gift to the representative of their 
noble city of Strasbourg, that would not surrender, 
that stood firm under a terrible fire, and would not 
yield until famine, the grim messenger of death, was 
in every household and in the barracks. What 
whole-souled cheering rent the air. Shout upon 
shout was upward borne of " Vive la guerre ! Vive 
Strasbourg! bas la Prusse ! bas Bismarck /" Long 
after we left the spot the echoes still resounded 
through the still clear air. Thus this votive shrine 
was still the focus of patriotic homage when we left 
the doomed capital. 

On many occasions I have thought, in listening to 
the sorrows of old and young, that this one's story 
was more affecting, more to be pitied, than any I 
had heard. This day I changed my mind, and truly 



France and her People. 231 

I could now weep afresh for the sorrow of a young 
bride. She was from Nancy ; her husband had 
joined his regiment at the breaking out of the war. 
She was now lamenting that he was a prisoner, sent 
she knew not where, and only yesterday, she said, 
"Sad news came direct from home that they fired 
our little house, destroyed our crops, but not satis- 
fied with that, drove my aged mother and young 
sister into the forest, and I know they are killed or 
dying of hunger. And then only think, dear lady, 
I worked all my life very hard to have a respectable 
trousseau. They burnt my six dozen linen sheets 
and all my wardrobe. Oh, the wretches." Her 
sobs were loud and her grief vehement. In a few 
moments she said, "And now you see a beggar be- 
fore you. I have no home, no friends near me, no 
money or clothes." This was a hard trial for a light- 
hearted bride of twenty summers. " How consoling 
the thoughts are to this poor heart," she said, " that 
some day we will have our revenge." 

I had business at my washerwoman's. As she 
lived quite a distance from us, I called a carriage 
and drove to her house, which was just outside the 
city of Versailles gate. It may be interesting to the 
curious to know how at least one of this hard toiling- 
class lives in France. The house is built of stone, 
three stories high, with a large garden enclosed by a 
stone wall. After a long knocking by the coachman, 



232 France and her People. 

the good dame made her appearance, and with many 
apologies for the detention, said she was engaged in 
planting out the last cabbages for winter use. " Ma- 
dam," she added, " will you please walk in and see 
my fruits ? " I consented. We were no sooner 
alone and in the garden, than directly to the cabbage 
bed she went; the earth was fresh, the cabbage 
plants had just been put there. "I will tell you, 
madam, as I know your political sentiments, that 
underneath the cabbage we have just buried in boxes 
our fine linen, jewels, silver, and every article of 
value. Do not for a moment suppose that we intend 
giving those coquins (rogues) our hard earnings." 
Her garden wall was covered with grape vines, laden 
with the purple and white grapes ; also apricot, pear, 
and apple trees adorned this fruitful spot. Her 
vegetables were excellent, and her flowers redolent 
with ten thousand perfumes. She culled the choicest 
moss-rose buds and the finest bunches of grapes, and 
solicited that we would honor her by accepting them. 
Her poultry yard was well filled, and her house sup- 
plied with all necessary comforts. I thought, can 
this be the home of a French laborer, and a washer- 
woman, the class that I have heard depicted as poor, 
scarcely earning brown bread and thin soup ? I 
breathed an inward prayer as I drove from that 
plentiful home ; and felt that happy would it be if all 
the lower classes in other countries had half the 



France and her People. 233 

comforts, pleasures, and sure pay that they receive in 
the Empire of France. 

On the 14th of August (Sunday) I was driving 
down the Boulevard des Italiens when we were star- 
tled by the sudden stopping of our carriage. Such 
shouting ! With a rush they came down the avenue, 
and a peculiarly shaped bag was thrust into the car- 
riage, pour les blesses (for the wounded) ; then we 
knew it must be a novel scene, for indeed mortal 
had never beheld such a trio of female patriotism as 

met our view. Mrs. , an American lady, carried 

her country's flag with a determined air. A few 
paces in the rear another American lady bore with 
stately air the French flag, and beside her walked 

Miss , another American young lady, bearing 

with dignity the royal jack of England — a very con- 
spicuous position for ladies. They were followed by 
the surgeons, nurses, attendants, and the Anglo- 
American Ambulance, on its way to the frontier. 
A goodly crowd of boys and canaille that ever close 
up the ranks of a street parade followed. The Ame- 
rican portion of this body had a few days previous 
unceremoniously withdrawn from the American 
Sanitary Commission, and they united with the 
English. A few months later I chanced to meet 
this same ambulance in Brussels; it was a forlorn, 
dusty, dingy company. They all looked as though 

they had experienced hard service ; the ladies ac- 

20* 



234 France and her People, 

companied them only to the depot in Paris. The 
poor horses were jaded out; the new trappings were 
soiled. I admired those noble men that exposed 
themselves to aid the fallen soldiers. There is no 
field of labor more honorable, and no more disinter- 
ested people than the workers in the Sanitary Com- 
mission. 

We travelled with a lady from Amsterdam ; she 
was going as nurse into a hospital at Mayence ; her 
greatest anxiety appeared to be that the fruits she 
was taking to the wounded would reach them in 
safety. She said, " It will repay me for all my 
trouble when I hand a bunch of grapes or any fruit 
to a wounded soldier, and see the grateful expression 
of his languid eyes, or hear his heartfelt thanks." 




CHAPTER XXIV. 

News of Sedan — Fall of the Empire — Our flight to Paris — Aspect 
of the city — Prince Imperial — Passport — Difficulty in leaving — 
Journey and arrival in Dieppe — Scenes at the hotel. 

OEPTEMBER 4th.— I could not sleep; that was 
^ impossible. I arose very early, threw open the 
shutters, then looked from earth to heaven, upon 
that ethereal vault which was of the purest blue 
and cloudless. The sun's rays were just gilding 
with a golden lustre the tops of those grand old 
woods ; the air was balmy, and so calm that it was 
oppressive. With haste I hurried to the bulletin- 
board stationed at the palace-gate, just across the 
street, and only a few steps from our door. All the 
satisfaction I obtained was, No news. Two servants 
in green, with the unmistakable letter N on their 
caps, stood gazing on the ground ; they politely 
bowed, sighed, shook their heads, and exclaimed, 
" We are lost ; we are lost ! " 

I could not breakfast. The lively young fruit- 
vendor that tapped lightly each morn on the win- 
dow, crying, vat/d les beaux fruits, madame (here are 
the fine fruits, madam), failed to arouse my attention, 
until he said : " Please buy a few, for I will never sell 

235 



236 France and her People. 

any more ; to-morrow the Prussians will be down 
upon us and devour our fruits, drink our wine, and, 
who knows, perhaps shoot us all, que Dieu nous pro- 
tege (that God may protect us)." I replied, " May 
your prayer be answered." He filled my fruit-bas- 
ket, and there we left them. I could not remain in 
doors. I called on a friend to learn if there was any 
dreadful news, for we all surmised some unheard-of 
calamity. She said: " At two o'clock we shall know 
all ; my husband left with hundreds on the earliest 
train for Paris this morning to ascertain the state of 
affairs." Her words were verified ; we knew all by 
the arrival of the mail train. Then the astounding 
news burst upon Versailles with an overwhelming 
sorrow; the stillness of death reigned in her deserted 
streets ; not even a breeze or a gentle zephyr blew 
to stir into life the motionless leaves that drooped in 
silent grief over the fallen Empire. This was the 
day for the great fountains to play ; but no waters 
with joyful murmurs broke the silence of despair ; 
the only water that flowed was the scalding tears of 
sorrow that coursed down many cheeks. 

I was appalled, stupefied, with the disastrous news, 
— the Emperor a prisoner, with 80,000 men ; Mac- 
Mahon dangerously wounded, thousands slain, 
France declared a republic, the Empress fled from 
the Tuileries, the mob in possession, the tri-colored 
flag torn down. This was agonizing to us; may 



France and her People. 237 

those who read these pages never experience what 
we suffered. Oh, for the wings of a bird to fly from 
this hated government. Such a change in a few 
hours the world never knew. After hastily arrang- 
ing our remaining effects, we drove to our landlord's, 
delivered the key, and, amid a clamorous throng, 
entered the railway carriage by the evening train for 
Paris. At every station the tumult was fearful. On 
approaching Paris continual shouting of the bois- 
terous canaille, ushering in the new-born republic, 
rent the air. Arriving in Paris we took a coach. It 
was with great difficulty at many points we could pass 
through the crowd ; finally we alighted at our former 
home, opposite the Tuileries, where we were met by 
the faithful concierge and his pretty blackeyed wife. 
This indeed was pleasant, for we knew we would be 
safe. This was no other than the undaunted man 
who was so sanguine the French would be in Berlin 
by the 15th of August. Alas, for human calcula- 
tions ! We sought our beds. The incessant crowds 
of singing, shouting demons — for such they sounded 
to my ears, composed of men, women, and children 
: — kept up the noise. About one o'clock in the 
morning exhausted nature, from a day of intense 
excitement, caused me to sleep. 

On awakening the noise had not abated; the 
streets were crowded ; bands of men and women 
shouting " Vive la Republique" paraded the streets, 



238 France and her People. 

cheering the mob on that were engaged, pick-axe in 
hand, in defacing and tearing down the medals of 
the Emperor and Imperial family, as also all the 
signs indicating purveyors of the Bourbon family 
that had remained unmolested during the Empire. 
The first fanatic that was endeavoring to tear down 
the Imperial eagle from over the private entrance at 
the palace of the Tuileries was killed. The emble- 
matic bird fell with tremendous force, crushing to 
death the pioneer in his diabolical mischief. The 
rabble rushed headlong into the palace of the Tui- 
leries thirsting for mischief and plunder. A daring 
villain drew his sword, intending to cut a valuable 
painting in twain. Some one cried out that it would 
be a far greater disgrace to turn the face to the wall. 
No sooner suggested than it was executed. By that 
stratagem the pictures were saved. All the private 
secretaires were torn open ; many elegant pieces of 
furniture chopped into fragments, all the cherished 
tokens of love and friendship defaced, and among 
these articles a costly and superb photograph-album, 
which had been presented by Queen Victoria to the 
Empress Eugenie. It contained the likenesses of 
the entire family of the Queen. Upon Queen Vic- 
toria's first visit to the Empress at Chiselhurst the 
Queen, with marked emotion, expressed her deep 
sympathy with the Empress, and condoled with her 
upon the loss of her wardrobe, jewels, and other 



France and her People, 239 

valuables. The Empress, with her usual suavity, 
replied, " The sacrifice of everything I possessed 
caused me little grief compared with the loss of the 
album your Majesty presented me." In a few days 
it was replaced by the gracious Queen by one even 
more elegant. The little Prince's apartments were 
infested by that lawless crowd ; and every article of 
his childhood and youth was destroyed. 

He had a large and perfect collection of leaden 
soldiers, horses, field pieces, a miniature fort, with 
all the equipments. The rabble, no doubt, believed 
that the spirit of Bellona could animate those leaden 
soldiers, and by her horrid shrieks and groans in- 
spire them for the ranks of Mars. I sincerely believe 
that among that superstitious canaille, and those that 
are ignorant from their own indolence, there is noth- 
ing too ridiculous for them to believe, or too fiendish 
for them to execute. They are led on by crafty 
politicians, whose only wish is for supremacy, self- 
aggrandizement, rapine, and murder of the innocent 
and virtuous. Devastating property, sacrificing reli- 
gious shrines, annihilating all social and civil rights, 
their glory would be to transform fair France into a 
darker, more debased state than existed in the days 
of the Goths and Vandals. Thus they have proved 
themselves to the world. The only satisfaction I 
have is knowing they are composed of the dregs of 
all nations that are too worthless to earn an honest 



240 France and her People. 

living in a well-governed law-abiding country, and 
they are not the sons and daughters of France. 

I called on Dr. F., who informed me that the Em- 
peror was at the palace of Wilhelmshohe, in Hesse 
Cassel ; he was despondent, and said he had many 
fears that La belle France and her children would 
pine for the bright days of the Empire. I bade him 
adieu. 

The Prince Imperial was conducted by the Duke 

and several other friends to a seaport town ere 

he knew the terrible change in his beloved land. 
The gentlemen thought it would be advisable to 
divulge the disastrous news in a gentle manner. The 

Duke communicated the correct state of his 

country, the fall of his father's empire, his mother's 
flight, and the entire dispersing of his friends and 
relatives. The noble lad turned pale as death, then 
said, in a firm voice, "All that is nothing, if France 
is not lost." Such a remark would be expected from 
a philosopher, scarcely from a lad only fourteen 
years and six months old. He then requested to be 
left alone for two hours, at the expiration of that 
time he was prepared to leave his native soil. He 
proceeded immediately to England, where hundreds 
gave him an honest, hearty welcome to their hospi- 
table shores, the adopted home of many of France's 
dethroned kings and their families. 

The drenching rain of the past night aided in 



France and her People. 241 

some degree in abating the excited noise of the mob. 
We were anxious to leave this Babel, with its rough 
recruits, who were installed in the place of the vigi- 
lant order-producing Sergenls de Ville (policemen). 
Never had a city a more perfect police system, or men 
more efficient in the discharge of their duties. We 
had an opportunity of contrasting them with the 
lawless men the Republic put into office. After pro- 
curing our passport from the American Legation, 
we proceeded to the Palais' de Justice to have it ex- 
amined and signed. Two ruffian-looking volunteer 
soldiers guarded the entrance ; they rushed close up 
to our carriage, presented their bayonets, and shouted, 
" Vive la Republiqice." We explained to them our 
business, and the haste we were in. They only re- 
plied, " No admittance for you." My first thought 
was we are out of France. Not so, but France was 
out of law, order, and even civility. 

The kind coachman, in our dilemma, suggested 
that there was another entrance for ladies, under the 
Empire, " Mais Dieu alone can tell what it is used 
for now." — ll Thanks," I said, "drive to that door." 
Here our ingress was impossible ; the whole square 
in front of the palace was filled by detachments of 
the National Guards under drill. By this time the 
rain poured in torrents. We did not even dare enter 
Belgium in these times without our passport. Not 

a moment to lose, as we intended leaving that 
21 



242 France and her People. 

evening. To whom could we apply? All our 
friends had fled, and the American Legation was 
several miles off. Suddenly I thought of our che- 
mist, the courteous Mr. C. We soon drove to his 
store, and he kindly assented to make the attempt to 
gain the inner door of the palace, and hoped all 
would be well. In a few hours he succeeded, and 
returned us our passport. 

Having occasion to enter into the Palais Royal, I 
was obliged to pass in front of the barracks in the 
Louvre. What a sad sight I beheld. The decora- 
tions of the Imperial Guard floating in the gutters, 
and the eagles strewn on the street. I would have 
picked up several, but the fear of being shot by the 
low mob that filled the street prevented my securing 
a memento of these sorrowful days. Every one said 
the railroads would be cut in a few days, the enemy 
being only fourteen miles from Versailles. Thou- 
sands were flying in every direction, as if certain de- 
struction awaited them. 

After a weary day, at five in the afternoon, we ar- 
rived at the station of the North, having decided on 
Dieppe for a short sojourn. A crowd of carriages, 
people, and vehicles blocked the entrance to the de- 
pot ; we could not advance within a quarter of a 
mile of it; the rain fell in torrents, adding no charm to 
our situation. In a few moments a man stopped our 
carriage, saying that orders had been given that no 



France and her People. 243 

more persons could leave this day. I descended and 
made my way through the throng of disappointed, 
care-worn mortals to the ticket- office, but poor suc- 
cess greeted me. No luggage would be allowed on 
this train except what could be carried in our hands. 
There was more baggage than they could check for 
a week in advance of ours. I had taken the precau- 
tion to be at the depot two hours in advance of the 
train starting, knowing what a vast concourse of 
people would be leaving ; but I never expected to 
undergo the annoyance we endured. We retraced 
our steps to the banking-house, and there found the 
accommodating porter, who was just going home. 
He jumped on the carriage; we drove rapidly to 
the storehouse, deposited our boxes, opened them in 
great haste, tied up some necessary clothing in a 
shawl, — then to the carriage. Again the driver drove 
at a brisk rate. We reached the depot in time ; and 
after the most terrible crowding and jostling I ever 
beheld, and not without fears of being trampled 
under foot, we gained the desired haven, the ticket- 
office. After obtaining our tickets we formed in 
line, and struggled through to the railway carriages. 
Here there was a great delay on account of putting 
on eighty extra carriages, making one hundred and 
eighty in all. When we were once under way there 
was no lingering at stations. I took a last fond look 
of the proudest most magnificent capital in the 



244 France and her People, 

world. Deem it not weakness when I confess my 
tears unbidden fell. 

What a sad-looking people! Not a smile; all 
going, rushing, many knew not where. A great 
number were English families, homeward bound. 
We soon passed Asnieres, then through a fertile 
country to Vernon, when darkness veiled the land- 
scape from our view. At one in the morning Dieppe 
was announced. It rained, hailed, blew, thundered, 
and lightnened. All the elements raged with un- 
bounded fury. Old Neptune roared; the mighty 
waves lashed the shore in frenzied wrath. After an 
hour of impatience we obtained a carriage. While 
watching for it we left our seats, and upon our return 
they were occupied by two ladies. The eldest one 
spoke very rudely : " No doubt you would like your 
seats." I said, " Madam, do not disturb yourself." — 
" I have no idea of doing that," she quickly said. 
" You must be one of those miserable, dissatisfied 
French that no government or ruler could satisfy 
were he an angel." I passed on, not heeding the 
poor exasperated woman's remark ; no doubt she 
had been long a resident of Paris, and could live 
luxuriously on an income that in England (her 
home) would barely sustain her family. To our 
great disappointment, we found six hotels full ; they 
would take no more guests. Finally we gained ad- 
mittance at the Hotel des Bains (Hotel of the Baths), 



France and her People. 245 

and had the felicity of extending our weary bodies 
on a pallet of straw, two inches thick, upon the 
drawing-room floor, with no pillow, no covers : every 
nook and corner were preoccupied. In disregard 
of all our annoyances and the angry elements, sleep, 
nature's panacea, came to our relief. On rising I 
was surprised to find more than thirty poor mortals 
extended on the carpet, old and young. A few 
minutes only elapsed ere I stood on the beach, 
which was in front of this hotel, gazing on old ocean. 
How glorious the sight of that water, glowing with 
Aurora's beams. The storm had subsided, a gentle 
breeze blew, and a rippling surface was all that was- 
visible. 

After breakfast the company assembled in the 
drawing-room; and such exciting tales of narrow 
escapes and scenes of death and carnage I never 
heard. They produced in me a nervous trepidation. 

A highly accomplished lady, the Duchess of , 

was here. I heard her relate her perilous escape 
and adventures to this town. She fled from Nancy 
at night with several friends, slept in the woods, 
arrived here with nothing but the clothes she wore 
and one franc (twenty cents) ; her chateau was pil- 
laged, then fired by the Prussians. She has lost 
everything she possessed; nothing remains except 
the charred walls. An officer of the navy was la- 
menting the non-arrival of tidings from his sisters 
21* 



246 France and her People, 

and their families ; their husbands were both pris- 
oners in Prussia. Another group, fond friends of 
the gallant MacMahon, were weeping and bewailing 
his death ; he was reported to have been killed at 
Sedan. Others were deploring the defeat of the 
army, their glory and pride. Many present, though 
more quietly, were suffering deeply for the fallen 
Empire. 

Quite an excitement was caused by the boxes of 
the Princess Mathilde being seized and detained by 
the enemies of her family ; but after a very thorough 
and satisfactory investigation it was proved they 
contained no State valuables or property belonging 
to France, only the Princess' private effects. She 
inherited an ample fortune from her deceased hus- 
band, the Prince Demidoff, last winter. She was 
fleeing to Brussels, where she now resides in mag- 
nificence. With her generous nature she will diffuse 
happiness to many poor suffering children of her 
afflicted country. Her brother, the Prince Napoleon, 
has lost a great portion of his property ; his palace 
at Meudon was destroyed, which for beauty of site 
could not be surpassed. His Paris home, the Palais 
Royal, exists no more. His children are young and 
very interesting. The Princess Clotilde, his wife, is 
one of the most refined ladies in Europe. Her de- 
votion to the Empress was firm ; she could not be 
induced to leave Paris while the Empress remained, 



France and her People. 247 

and only fled after the terrible news of Sedan reached 
the capital. 

The Empress and Princess Clotilde were daily en- 
gaged, working and overseeing the packing of tons 
of condiments, wines, provisions and clothing for 
the soldiers, which were sent to the army prior to 
the fourth of September. 




CHAPTER XXV. 

Dieppe — Return to Paris — Pare de Monceau — Spirited woman of 
the Empire — Concealing«the Emperor's portraits — Interview with a 
person from Wilhelmshohe — Arrival at Dieppe. 

T~\IEPPE is delightfully situated at the mouth of 

^-^ the river Arques, which forms a commodious 

harbor. Two lofty ranges of chalk cliffs of purest 

white form the boundary lines of the valley, wherein 

lies the picturesque old town and seaport. With a 

fine wide frontage on the ocean, and a long row of 

first-class hotels, it cannot be anything else than a 

desirable bathing rendezvous for the lovers of the 

briny waves. Being patronized by the Imperial 

family, it has become a fashionable resort for the 

English and French. The bathing establishment is 

in great repute, fitted up with every convenience. 

There are about two hundred small tents, which 

serve as dressing rooms, from whence the bathers 

descend into the water. In fine weather the beach 

presents a lively, animated spectacle. The band 

discourses sweet music from two p. m. until dusk. 

Then the gay promenaders crowd to the beach. 

The garden belonging to the baths affords pleasant 
248 



France and her People. 249 

walks and shady seats, also a riding course and 
a gymnastic apparatus. 

The Bazaar is a circular space lined with fancy 
stalls, or booths, where the beautiful ivory work for 
which Dieppe has been celebrated for centuries can 
be obtained; in the centre of it is a mast, where- 
on when the tide is favorable for bathing a red 
flag is hoisted ; and near the bazaar, upon a high 
elevation overlooking the ocean, rises the extensive 
castle with its formidable walls, towers and bas- 
tions, erected in 1433 as a defence against the 
English. In 1694 it could not resist the wanton 
connonade of the British fleet, on their homeward 
course, after an unsuccessful attack upon Brest, 
which resulted in the total destruction of the town. 
The view is all that is attractive about the castle, 
except a high bridge. 

Great oyster beds, or oyster parks, as they are 
called, are here, from which the Paris markets 
receive large supplies. The statue of Duquesne, an 
admiral and native of Dieppe, is situated near the 
church of St. Jacques (the patron saint of fisher- 
men); he conquered the Dutch hero De Ruyter in 
1676. It is an ornament to the town. We attended 
this church, and had the pleasure of witnessing an 
impressive ceremony for the slain soldiers, and a 
beautiful procession, asking alms for the wounded 
who were lying unprovided for in almost every town. 



250 France and her People. 

A short drive brings one to the ruined castle of 
Arques, situated at the confluence of two streams, 
Bethune and Arques. Here Henry IV. gained a 
great victory with 4000 men over 30,000. An 
obelisk denotes the spot where the hardest struggle 
took place. After remaining five days we heard 
that entrance could still be made into Paris. I lost 
no time in availing myself of the favorable news, 
and after a pleasant trip arrived once more at our 
hotel on the Rue de Rivoli. 

Instead of the tri-colored flag that always floated 
from the Tuileries when the Emperor was there, a 
white flag now unfurled its pure surface to the 
breeze, as this palace was converted into an hos- 
pital for the sick and wounded soldiers. Every- 
thing was changed: no sergent de ville on duty, 
now beggars of all ages and nationalities followed us 
imploring for alms. One man importuned me for 
money. He said: "Under the Empire I had work, 
now I shall starve, as will this poor little child I 
carry in my arms." He was about thirty years old, 
a good-looking, healthy man. I said to him, " Who 
made the Republic?" He replied, innocently, "We 
all helped to cry Vive la Republigue" I then said, 
"Ask no assistance of me; the Republic will sup- 
port you and your family without doubt." 

The Pare de Mongeau is situated in the most 
desirable spot in Paris; the broad boulevards and 



France and her People. 251 

Champs Elysees are connected by this park with the 
Bois de Boulogne. Hundreds of carriages daily 
traverse this modern flower-garden. The parterre 
is modernized, but the rockwork, grotto and arti- 
ficial lake, which is nearly surrounded by ancient 
pillars, are all that remain of a gay court that 
resided within these precincts. There is also an 
ancient roofless circular edifice, which is mouldering 
into ruins. On entering we disturbed many birds, 
which, although accustomed to visitors, evidently 
considered us intruders; by their chirping and 
twittering they indicated we were not wanted. 
This building was properly the court-yard of the 
palace of Henry IV ; " La belle Gabrielle " resided 
here. The lake was her favorite bathing resort, and 
the park his private estate. This park was pur- 
chased by Philip of Orleans, the father of Louis 
Philippe, in 1778, and he transformed it into the 
most attractive spot in Paris; for originality and 
beauty it could never be surpassed. Baths, games 
and every accommodation were to be had here. 

The Duchess of Chartres, that elegant woman, 
presided over this brilliant court. Her name was 
Louise Marie de Bourbon Penthievre,'the mother of 
Louis Philippe. At that period none excelled her 
in grace and style. During the Revolution it be- 
came public property, and still remains a charming 
fashionable promenade for all classes — for in France 



252 France and her People. 

there are no exclusive grounds for the titled lord or 
rich man that can support a carriage and horses. Here 
the poor laborer can rest his weary limbs upon the 
moss-covered banks, or the poorest child sport in 
his wooden shoes, with all the freedom of a prince. 
It has four entrances, and is enclosed by a superb 
high iron railing, with the pickets gilded and the 
gateways adorned with large crystal globe lamps. 
Many handsome modern residences are situated just 
outside of the gates. 

The most romantic spot is the fall of water, which 
comes rushing and gurgling from the rocky chasm. 
The fissures are miniature glens, filled with wild 
flowers, ferns, and carpeted with moss. After a 
short, rugged descent of a few feet, we found our- 
selves in a grotto formed of stalactites, a fairy spot 
of rare beauty, wanting only the acquisition of the 
water nymphs to complete the delusion. Ivy grace- 
fully entwines the portals, and the largest stalactites 
protrude from every crevice. The god Consus 
should have been happy had he possessed such a 
a council chamber. Even a mineralogist might 
think these pendants had been formed by nature's 
deposit, so perfect is the imitation. The water flows 
through a narrow passage, then under ground across 
one of the main roads, then, bursting forth, flows 
under a rustic bridge into the lake, whose placid 
surface is covered with fancy ducks, which have an 



France and her People. 253 

island home in the centre of this calm water. Being 
fatigued, we seated ourselves on one of the stone 
benches which abound here, and observed the different 
groups that passed. I thought, what happy people. 
In no other country is so much spent for the public ; 
how can they ever revolt ? For two cents one can 
hire a chair for hours ; women have them to rent in 
the most frequented parts. Shady nooks and flowery 
dells greet the visitor at every turn. I have seen 
this park in its autumnal dress, and in its wintry ice- 
bound beauty, when a light fall of snow just covered 
the surface, not even effacing the outlines. Then it 
was picturesque, with each tiny twig enamelled with 
pearls, and studded with diamonds as the sun shone 
forth, — thus all appeared to me. In its pristine 
loveliness I have sat beneath those old trees, inhaling 
the perfumed air, made sweet from every open petal 
and each expanding bud; and in mid-summer I 
have hailed this quiet spot as the sole retreat from 
turmoil and confusion. 

To-day, the ninth day of the Republic, I came to 
this park from what had been the beautiful garden 
of the Tuileries, disgusted with Trochu and all his 
supporters ; for within that palace garden they have 
encamped the artillery, those lumbering field-pieces, 
horses and accoutrements, all defacing and destroy- 
ing the labor of years, and the beauties of nature and 
art. What was the object ? Not want of space, for 



22 



254 France and her People. 

ample room was near by on commons or vacant 
lots, much more than was necessary. It was to hu- 
miliate and provoke the friends of the fallen Empire. 
I am certain that few of the adherents of that regime 
beheld the outrage, as they had previously fled. 
The few soldiers, some of them Zouaves and Tur- 
quois, that arrived in Paris after Sedan, created a 
great excitement. They were escorted from the 
depot by a military band. Hundreds, anxious to 
learn the dreadful news of death and defeat, followed 
them through the streets. I passed several groups, 
with a soiled, dusty, and worn soldier in the midst 
detailing energetically his adventures to the attentive 
listeners. They cheered him as if he had been the 
hero of many battles. These soldiers were escaped 
prisoners from the Aceldama of Sedan. 

The last morning I was in Paris I entered a fash- 
ionable glove store on the Rue de Rivoli. After 
making some purchases, the lady in attendance re- 
marked, " These are sorrowful times." — " Yes in- 
deed," I replied. " You that are in the mercantile 
business will all suffer." In a low whisper she said, 
" Are you an enemy to our former government ? " 
I said, " No ; the strongest friend." Her manner 
changed; her pent-up feelings burst forth in a flood 
of tears. After a few moments she exclaimed: 
" Madam, please remain an instant. I must tell you 
what joy we had the other night: The ruffians 



France and her People. 255 

never had the satisfaction of tearing down and de- 
stroying our medals of the Emperor. No, no ; that 
would have broken our hearts. We did not retire ; 
we turned out the gas, closed the shop, and here we 
sat, impatiently waiting for the noise on the street to 
subside until two o'clock in the morning. My hus- 
band put up the ladder. I held the lamp. Yes, 
these hands held that lamp, the best work they ever 
performed. He took the medals carefully down 
without being detected. We then packed them in a 
box, and they are buried deep, deep in the ground 
in our cellar." She became vehement, saying, " They 
will go up again. They shall go up again — Vive 
I Empereur!' That was the last sound I heard as I 
closed the door and bowed to the heart-broken 
woman. 

From this shop I wended my way to the Passage 
or Arcade du Panorama, wishing for some souvenir 
of the Empire. I looked in several windows where 
I had frequently seen displayed many beautiful arti- 
cles of exquisite workmanship, all appertaining to 
the Imperial family. None this day — not even a 
portrait. After examining one case in the first shop 
I entered, but without success, I was just leaving, 
when the lady spoke : " Pardon, madam, have I 
nothing you desire ?" Cautiously I replied, " I can- 
not tell you until you show me what you may have 
that would entice me to make a purchase, for we 



256 France and her People. 

may require all our money to buy bread ere this war 
is over." — "Truthfully, dear lady, have you spoken," 
she said. " Wait, I will run and get you some hid- 
den treasures that you will not refuse to buy, at least 
one." Soon she came down the stairs, carrying a 
large box that was securely fastened. " Now select 
quickly, before some hated Republican comes in, or 
I will be arrested and my cherished goods stolen 
from me instantly." I selected several keepsakes — 
one a tortoise-shell portmonnaie, with the head of the 
Emperor encased on one side, a pretty trifle. Then 
she bade me watch the door until the valued trinkets 
were again hid. I said, " Can this be Paris ! " 

Business called me into another shop. The lady 
in attendance was the wife of one of his Majesty's 
suite, who was then in Wilhelmshohe ; she said her 
husband would rather sleep on the ground, live on 
hard dry bread, and have no wine, than desert his 
Emperor. She also said all his servants, without a 
dissenting voice, preferred exile and no compensa- 
tion to leaving their good master. They preferred 
the plain cap, with the honored letter N, to stand- 
ing in rank under Trochu or any man who might 
succeed him. She was in raptures over a letter she 
had just received from her husband, stating the Em- 
peror was well, and had stood the journey with little 
fatigue. From this friend of the Empire I hastened, 
as time would not wait for me. Many other inci- 



France and her People. 257 

dents I could relate which occurred during my short 
sojourn in Paris after the Republic was declared. 

By paying one of the railway men a few francs he 
had two trunks of mine checked for Dieppe. I was 
more than thankful to him. After a busy morning, 
again I was comfortably seated and flying from 
Paris. A bright, clear afternoon rendered the trip 
very pleasing to me, as I could enjoy the landscape 
that the previous darkness had almost hidden from 
view. 

Poissy, our first stopping place, is the greatest cat- 
tle-market in France ; it contains 4973 inhabitants. 
Epone came next. All I could learn about this 
town was that the inhabitants boast of a fine church 
of the twelfth century. Then came Rosny, the birth- 
place of Sully. It was lively with soldiers ; a band 
was playing. The barracks here are extensive; 
there is also an hospital, founded by Saint Louis. 
No grapes are cultivated or grow north of this 
town. 

Rouen is an ancient city ; it still retains its majes- 
tic and venerable aspect, and is second to no provin- 
cial city in France. In commerce it ranks high ; 
the chief cotton manufactories in France are seated 
here. The situation of this city on the Seine is ad- 
mirably adapted for the promotion of industry and 
commerce. The river here is a thousand feet wide. 

Many improvements have been made along the 
22* 



258 France and her People. 

quays, still it can afford days of explorations to the 
lovers of antiquity among its intricate streets, in the 
cathedral, churches, museum, Hotel de Ville, and 
many other famed places. I regret that each time I 
was hurried through this interesting city. The first 
bridge over the Seine here was built in 1 167, by 
Queen Matilda, daughter of Henry I. We had an 
excellent view of a fine avenue and promenade on 
the banks of the river, and in the distance are wide 
meadows, where the races are held. The view is 
very diversified : a long range of chalk hills runs 
along one side of the river for miles ; with their green 
tops, white ridged sides and slopes they present a 
beautiful appearance, and are long in view. Upon 
Mount St. Catherine, a chalk hill which rises on the 
east of the city and far above the Seine, the view 
must be splendid, as the entire town lies on a plain 
below. There the serpentine river is spanned by 
two bridges, and studded with crafts without number. 
The lofty spires of many churches point heavenward. 
The furnace chimneys of various manufactories give 
an industrial, enterprising prospect. Many snug lit- 
tle villages are clustered on the hillsides ; all com- 
bined, it is a beautiful prospect. The depot is ample, 
and furnished with every convenience. 

After a rest of thirty minutes for dinner we were 
again soon under way. How romantic and lovely 
this section of Normandy, with its thatched and 



France and her People, 259 

moss-roofed cottages, its orchards laden with fruits, 
all ripe for the cider-press. Cider is the common 
beverage in this part of France. These sequestered 
spots among the hills and dales are watered by the 
narrow river Scie, which we crossed twenty-two 
times. It meanders in all directions, first right, then 
left, and so on. Several mills are at work on its 
borders. The water is clear, reflecting the beautiful 
landscape with a minute accuracy through those 
transparent waters, by which means I enjoyed a 
double picture of the finest views. 

It was with regret I heard Dieppe announced; so 
swift had been our transit through this charming 
valley. I fain would have spent days, nay weeks, 
admiring the scenery of La belle Normandie. The 
women wear indescribable caps, pretty and becoming 
from their oddity and simplicity. Dieppe is one 
hundred and four miles from Paris. 

After a sojourn of two weeks in this town of many 
interesting associations, with a gay, lively assemblage 
of persons from many nations, we concluded to bid 
adieu to the place. Ere we departed I enjoyed one 
more stroll to the beach. I had seated myself on a 
piece of timber which was lying on the shore, 
thinking I could rest and then find the sea-weeds 
I was seeking. Soon my thoughts wandered. I 
became absorbed in contemplating the dark, deep 
blue sea, when suddenly a mighty wave washed 



260 France and her People. 

completely over me, and so quickly retired that 
I scarcely knew from whence it came. I arose, 
shaking off the briny tears, for this was old ocean's 
farewell drippings. I concluded, as I dragged my- 
self up through the sand, that a drier and calmer 
good-bye would be preferable. 




CHAPTER XXVI. 

Journey from Dieppe to Eu — Abbeville — Amiens — Arrival in Brus- 
sels — Adventure of Col. F. — Trip from Ostend to Dover. 



F 



ROM Dieppe to Eu we were compelled to pat- 
ronize the time-honored diligence stage coach, 
as no luggage could be checked, and the communi- 
cation was stopped by railroad as far as Abbeville. 
The diligence is a heavy lumbering vehicle, divided 
into three compartments. We fortunately secured 
the coupe by applying the day before. The coupe 
accommodates only three persons : from it one can 
obtain a view of the country as the diligence passes 
along. It was amusing to watch the movements of 
our four large horses, and the jolly postilion, who 
urged them on by cheering and occasionally making 
an impression with his coarse boots on the sides of 
the horse he rode. The driver was more decorous. 
Seated in his elevated position, he only cracked his 
whip with great force, but never touched the horses. 
The process of loading or piling on the luggage 
was slow and tiresome; all was placed on the top, 

and so high that a ladder was necessary for the pas- 

261 



262 France mid her People, 

sengers to mount to it. Among the number of 
passengers I saw one lady clambering up ; she 
was so eager to fly from Dieppe, and in such terror 
of the Prussians entering son pays (her country), I 
believe she would have consented to be lashed to 
the back of the coach. At last we started on our 
journey, and soon the picturesque town of Dieppe 
was receding from our sight. For several miles 
the ocean was in view. The road was wide and 
smooth, and bordered with forest trees. These 
extended only a few miles, as this section of the 
country is void of shrubbery, except an occasional 
clump of trees. The formation of the land is singu- 
lar; some portions undulating, forming long and 
waved slopes, which have the appearance of having 
been the recipients of ocean's lashing waves ; some 
portions contain conical-shaped mounds. 

The shepherds and shepherdesses were stationed 
all along the route, looking very primitive. Each 
flock is attended by a trained dog. The aged shep- 
herds wore long cloaks, with round capes, and 
broad-brimmed hats. Their silvered locks blew 
in tangled disorder around their careworn though 
placid faces. With the addition of a long staff their 
toilet was complete. Thus they live happy in their 
pastoral life. Politics never trouble them; they care 
not who governs, only let it be a sovereign who is a 
warrior, or the descendant of a race whose love and 



France and her People. 263 

ambition was military glory: that is the sentiment 
almost universal in every section of France. 

Cany, situated in a green and fertile glen, with 
pretty gardens, was refreshing to the eye after such 
a level, monotonous line of sheep pastures. Here 
the prospect is changed to ridges of chalk lands, culti- 
vated in strips ; our road is again adorned with forest 
emblems of strength and beauty. Making a sudden 
turn, we wound round and down a long hill, then 
such a transcendent view of nature's fairest scene 
was before us. I wished to stop the horses and in- 
dulge in a long gaze upon Treport and its environs. 
There the seaport and fishing town was snugly har- 
bored between a high range of chalk hills, whose 
summits were one mass of living green. On the 
ocean's dark-blue bosom sparkled thousands of daz- 
zling gems, made more effulgent by the last lingering 
rays of a warm autumnal sun. The inlet, or arm of 
the sea, extends about a mile up the valley. The 
town is built upon both sides of this inlet, with a 
wide frontage on the ocean. The buildings are of a 
bluish stone. The village church is Gothic, erected 
on a height, and approached by a long flight of stone 
steps. The most remarkable feature about this 
church is the pendants of stone hanging from the 
roof of its nave. The coach-horn was blown loud 
and clear during our descent of the hill, allowing 
the inhabitants time to congregate on the quay, 



264 France and her People. 

where we drove up. Few have ever seen such a 
lively sight ; but all had sad hearts, for about five 
hundred persons, mostly from Paris, stood eagerly 
awaiting the diligences for tidings from home and 
friends. 

At once the coaches were encircled. We answered 
questions as fast as possible. " When were you in 
Paris ?" " Are the railways cut ?" " How near are 
the Prussians?" " Have you a late paper?" And 
thus they continued. I never talked as rapidly be- 
fore or since. When I informed them that two days 
only had elapsed since I came from Paris, this, instead 
of satisfying them, only increased their eagerness to 
gain more information. One lady said, " Only tell 
me if you passed by Rue de la Paix ; for I left my 
son and daughter there, and I have not heard a 
word from home, and it is now two weeks." 

Treport is supposed to be the Ulterior Portus of 
Julius Caesar, and the harbor for Eu, a town of 4168 
inhabitants, three miles distant. The drive to Eu 
was very pleasant ; we had a view of the chateau 
where Louis Philippe entertained Queen Victoria 
with great pomp and ceremony in 1843. Here is 
a fine old Gothic church. W T e had only time to get a 
bowl of soup and purchase a few views of the town. 
We changed our diligence for a large omnibus. 
There were fourteen ladies inside, and I know not 
how many people on top. The distant view of Eu, 



France and her People. 265 

embosomed in a labyrinth of majestic trees and tasty 
gardens, appeared the realization of an Eden upon 
earth. The narrow silvery river Bresle flows through 
the town, and empties itself into the channel at Tre- 
port. I took a long, lingering glance at the charm- 
ing prospect we were leaving far below in the valley, as 
our road now lay up bare barren hills. I turned to 
survey our companions ; not a word was spoken for 
at least thirty minutes. One old lady in particular 
attracted our attention ; she was accompanied by a 
fair girl of fourteen. She carried no luggage except 
a large bag, which she would not consign to any 
one's care long enough for her to get into the omni- 
bus ; but crowded in, bag in hand. She seemed 
in deep grief, and the bag was guarded with a miser's 
eye. A bright-looking young woman intruded her- 
self enough upon the secrecy of our companion of 
the bag to open a conversation. 

The lady said, " I feel that friends surround me, 
therefore I will speak unreservedly. I am from 
Nancy. You all know how our city has suffered. 
My daughter and her family have reached England 
in safety. This is my granddaughter. We escaped 
by the aid of our gardener after our house was fired; 
and this bag of silver, dear ladies, is all that remains 
of a chateau that was completely furnished. I am 
on my way to Lille (a northern city of France), from 
thence I shall join my friends in England, and never 
23 



266 France mid her People. 

will I return until the merciless foe has left our soil. 
We will be revenged, not individually, but as a na- 
tion ; if not by the present generation, the next will 
wipe out, with interest added, every butchered inno- 
cent woman and child, every outrage they have 
committed upon the unoffending poor, and every 
village burned, every church destroyed. They shall 
pay for all." Our sympathies were enlisted more 
than ever for the sufferings of these people. 

We passed several villages ; their thatched roofs 
and antique windows, entwined with vines and fruit 
trees trained upon the white walls, looked romantic 
by moonlight. We were all glad when Abbeville 
was announced. 

Before we entered the town the guard came, ac- 
companied by an officer, to examine our luggage. 
W 7 e were all allowed to pass on. This is a large 
manufacturing town. The station was filled with 
soldiers on their way to Paris to be butchered, poor 
fellows ! Most of them looked very young ; they were 
singing, light-hearted, and gay. Here we took the 
railway for Amiens, arriving at one o'clock in the 
morning, when a good omnibus soon brought us to 
a nice, clean hotel. 

We arose early, refreshed, and desirous of seeing 
this large manufacturing town, which contains 62,000 
inhabitants. The river Somme passes through the 
city, divided into eleven branches, and renders great 



France and her People. 267 

service in turning the water-wheels of numerous fac- 
tories. The cathedral is Gothic, commenced in 
1220; it is one of the noblest edifices in Europe. It 
is the largest cathedral in France. A minute detail 
of all its elegancies I will forbear. A bronze statue 
is erected in it to the memory of Peter the Hermit, 
preacher of the first Crusade. Many persons of note 
are natives of Amiens. The public square, or place, 
is adorned by garden plots, trees, fountains. Alto- 
gether it is a beautiful city. The market-gardens, or 
Hortillonnages, are situated near the banks of the 
Somme ; they are divided by narrow streams of wa- 
ter or canals, and are only accessible by boats. The 
gardeners gather all their vegetables in boats, and 
row from bed to bed, which has a singular and very 
pretty effect. 

The towns are deserted. Sad faces greet you 
everywhere. We were detained at Mons two hours. 
This city is in Belgium ; situated in the midst of a 
highly cultivated, fertile country. We arrived at 
Brussels in the afternoon, and with great difficulty 
found accommodations, there being more than fifty 
thousand French persons here ; every hotel and 
lodging-house is full. 

Among the first sights that greeted us were the 
poor French prisoners, walking about listless and 
heart-broken. They are well treated in this noble 
city, and the wounded receive every care and atten- 



268 France and her People. 

tion. It is not my intention to describe Brussels 
here. I will only remark that it reminds me of Paris 
in miniature ; it has noble statues, gorgeous churches 
and public buildings, numerous palatial hotels, a 
superb botanical garden and park. It is well built, 
a clean and elegant city, affording all the enjoy- 
ments, luxuries, and necessaries of life at a reasona 
ble rate, — no impositions or frauds practised on 
strangers. The railways are well conducted, as are 
other public conveyances. 

I formed the acquaintance of Colonel F.'s mother 
on board of a steamer on the Rhine. We travelled 
together from the Military Hospital at Bonn to Liege, 
a city of Belgium. The dauntless young officer, 
Colonel F., was slightly wounded at Sedan. Fearing 
he would be captured, after the cessation of fighting, 
he left the saddle and laid himself down by the side 
of the road, not knowing, and scarcely caring what 
would be the result. He knew they were watched; 
escape was impossible. He had lain a few moments 
when he heard loud talking. He feigned death. 
When they had completely plundered him the two 
Prussian soldiers fled, they being well satisfied with 
their booty, as they became the possessors of one 
thousand francs, a gold watch, several miniatures, 
and other articles of value. They made no examina- 
tion to find if life was extinct, but left him in haste. 

When twilight's dusky rays threw her grey mantle 



France mid her People. 269 

over this ghastly scene our soldier arose quietly; 
though faint from hunger and his wounds, he has- 
tened for water to a brook near by, and, fortunately, 
found a canteen of brandy and some bread in a knap- 
sack. After a refreshing repast he commenced look- 
ing for a horse, when suddenly, as if prompted with 
frantic joy, an animal bounded towards him. With 
unspeakable delight he discovered it was no other 
than his own loved steed. He mounted, desiring to 
leave speedily such a field of horrors. He was ad- 
vancing, when a shriek of anguish caused him to 
halt. A form on the ground extended an arm ; it 
was a poor Zouave comrade. " What can I do for 
you ? " asked the colonel. " Nothing, only allow 
me to throw myself across your path, let your horse 
trample me to death." — " No, no," said the colonel. 
" Rise quickly ; let us flee to Belgium. Catch a 
horse on yonder hillock ; we can reach the frontier 
before morning dawns." The brave but dying Zou- 
ave raised himself on his elbow, and waving his hand, 
said, " You knew not, my officer, that I fought with 
this arm three hours after my left one was shattered. 
Had I the use of my limbs I would still fight for my 
country as long as life lasted. Shoot me, my colonel, 
then my agonies will be past." The colonel sprang 
from his horse, seized his flask, the Zouave could 
still swallow; the colonel bound up his lacerated 

limbs with a shirt he tore from a dead body; but 
23* 



270 France and her People. 

his care was of no avail, the Zouave fell back ex- 
hausted, and with one last effort he exclaimed, 
" Vkxe VEmpereur! Vive la France /" and all was 
over ; the gallant spirit was free. A letter directed 
to his mother and a few coppers were all the Zouave 
had about him. 

The colonel suppressed his emotions, put spurs to 
his horse, and urged him to his utmost speed. He 
was hurrying through a coppice, wishing to gain the 
main road before darkness enveloped him, when he 
was surrounded, seized, placed in an ambulance, and 
at once conveyed to the hospital at Bonn. There he 
remained without tidings from his family for several 
weeks, until one day, as he was reposing in the 
courtyard, he espied a lady clad in deep mourning 
passing from one to another, looking eagerly into 
each face until his turn came. The colonel ex- 
claimed : " Beloved mother, how came you here 
from Paris ? " Then his mother related that for two 
weeks they had been searching day and night in 
ambulances, hospitals, and in every abode where 
they could ascertain there was a French soldier. 
His father thought him dead, but his mother would 
not give up hope. Her toilsome task was over ; she 
had accomplished her heart's desire, her loved son 
was convalescent, and treated kindly by all the supe- 
rior officers, To fully realize the above sketch the 
mother's recital should be heard. I held her hand 



France and her People. 271 

at parting. She said : " May our good God restore 
peace in our distracted country, and may my three 
soldier sons again meet at our fireside, and may our 
Emperor be restored to his throne. Come and see 
me in Paris ; we shall meet again." I had the last 
glimpse of that devoted mother as the train moved 
on. She stood waving adieu at the depot in Liege. 

This recital caused me much sorrow for the lives 
of the thousand soldiers whose blood was watering 
valley and plain, for the woe-stricken parents, the 
burnt districts, the desolated homes, the starvation, 
nay death of women and children by scores. No 
class has suffered so much in France as the indus- 
trious, frugal peasantry, the tillers of the soil. En- 
tire villages, hamlets, and vineyards destroyed ; all 
that remained are heaps of charred rubbish ; the old 
and young flying in agony, many lying in the woods 
feeding on roots and the scanty pittance that an im- 
poverished people could divide one with another. 
Could there be a sadder sight than when fleeing from 
home to look back and see the loved abode in 
flames ? 

We steamed off from Ostend at nine o'clock A. m., 
with a strong westerly wind blowing fresh. The 
paddle-wheels had not made a dozen revolutions be- 
fore the fair ones commenced to disappear into the 
cabin, already being sea-sick. I pitied them if the 
sea we had on then could cause even a sensation of 



272 , France and her People. 

that indescribable feeling that makes the sufferer 
careless whether he lives or dies. It is the most 
care-for-nothing state known to sorrowing mortals, 
this sea-sickness. The captain ran close to the 
Belgian shore, which presented nought except barren 
sandhills, with an occasional glimpse of a church 
spire and windmill in the distance. As we neared 
Dunkirk, the coast of France came in sight. We 
had the loved land in view until we crossed to Dover. 
The captain was an experienced sailor, or I do not 
know where we would have been. His boat was 
old, and had been condemned. The waves increased 
in magnitude ; the boat commenced to roll in a fear- 
ful manner. Suddenly the colors were raised ; the 
captain then informed me that we were going to 
pass the French fleet. He was compelled to raise 
the neutral flag of Belgium, or we would be chased 
for a Prussian boat. 

The fleet consisted of twelve ships in all ; they 
made a fine appearance ; the red, white, and blue 
floated gracefully in the breeze. This sight was 
fraught with sadness to me. I vividly brought to 
my mind the grand scene at Cherbourg, when the 
Empress paid the fleet a visit, she being sent by the 
Emperor upon the declaration of war. What changes 
in three months ! The wind increased continually, 
and now blew a hurricane ; the sea ran mountains 
high. The captain admitted it was a hard blow. 



France and her People. 273 

Each time he passed he would say in French, "You 
are a good sailor, are you not sick ?" On arriving 
at Dover it was impossible to land ; three times we 
had to run out to sea, turn and tack. The descrip- 
tion of the scene on deck as we were endeavoring to 
land may interest some poor soul who has been in a 
similar position. 

The passengers had all assembled on deck. The 
waves washed over the sides of the boat, indis- 
criminately saturating nobleman and plebeian with 
the briny fluid. I stood holding on to the cabin- 
door, my feet firmly braced against a heavy sta- 
tionary mat. Just inside the door were two Spanish 
ladies, lying at the top of the stairs ; they were 
supplicating the " Santa Virgen " in the most touch- 
ing tones. A lady was lying just in front of me on 
the deck, and so sick. How I pitied her. The 
attentive husband was gallantly trying to keep the 
basin somewhere in the vicinity of her mouth, when 
a mighty wave sent him flat on his face. Away flew 
the fragments of the basin. Another lady, in her 
terror, threw her arms around and tightly clung to a 
sick man's neck, whose face was the most woful pic- 
ture I ever beheld. I had to laugh ; he no doubt 
thought some sea-monster had claimed him for its 
far-off home amid the coral reefs. Finally he shook 
her off. Several attempted to walk, but they soon 
found their level on the deck. 



274 France and her People. 

Our captain was lamenting that he had to return 
at eleven o'clock p. m. He was thundering forth his 
orders through a trumpet, the wind howling with 
frightful fury. By dint of skill and patience we 
reached the pier, which extends far out into the sea. 
The captain handed us all safely on shore. We 
thanked him kindly, and bade him good-bye. He 
is the most courteous seafaring man I ever met. He 
is short and moderately stout, with a profusion of 
light hair, a kind blue eye, and a genial smile ; he 
wore boots that seemed taller than the man — they 
came far above the knee — light pants, a tarpaulin, 
and a huge fur coat. This was his costume. All 
the officers on this boat were indefatigable in their 
attentions and efforts to please the passengers. 

After a short rest we took the train for London, 
and arrived at the Charing Cross Hotel late and 
weary. 









CHAPTER XXVII. 

The Empress abandoned — Her safe arrival in England — Her 

charities. 

AT EVER could there have been, nor will there 
^ ever be, a sadder, more terrible state than the 
Empress Eugenie was placed in. For days she was 
watched by the Belleville men; they entered the 
Tuileries by the Place de la Concorde; the deserted 
Empress could see their onward progress through 
the trees; then they rushed with maddened frenzy 
into the reserved garden; and finally crashed in the 
windows and broke open the doors. They were 
joined from the opposite side of the palace by bands 
of the same lawless thieves that came through the 
Place du Carrousel, — black masses of men, pressing 
closer and closer, broke in everywhere. There was 
no one to forbid them; the Guards had followed the 
brave example of Trochu, the man appointed by the 
Emperor. He and all the ministers forsook the 
Empress. They betrayed her, left her alone, to be 
butchered by those blood-thirsty, unsatiated cow- 
ards. On that lovely Sabbath day she made her 

exit by a door scarcely remembered, and through a 

275 



276 France and her People. 

long corridor. Down those stone steps the sorrow- 
ing, weary Empress, accompanied by one lady 
friend, almost flew with breathless haste, rushed into 
the street, hailed a passing voiture de place (hackney 
coach), and drove to a friend's residence, who after- 
wards conveyed her to England's shores. This was 
M. Lesseps, the great engineer, who designed and 
completed the Suez Canal in Egypt. 

At an early hour on Monday morning the 
Empress, the same lady, and two gentlemen drove 
out of Paris, and with all possible speed hastened to 
the sea coast, stopping only for necessary refresh- 
ments. On the arrival of the mournful party, not 
a boat of any kind was in the harbor. There was 
no time to waste ; for should the Empress be dis- 
covered fearful consequences might ensue. By 
careful watching by M. Lesseps, a yacht was discov- 
ered. After many efforts on his part, he was seen 
by the owner of the yacht, who immediately made 
for the pier. The owner proved to be an English 
nobleman, who graciously and gallantly proffered 
his services and that of his craft and crew. 

The party were soon under way, and when mid- 
way across the channel, a terrible squall came up. 
The waves washed over the frail bark with deluging 
effect ; the cabin was over two feet deep with water. 
For a time it was uncertain if they could ever gain 
the shore, but an overruling Providence wafted the 



France and her People. 277 

little boat safely to a haven of rest, and the desolate 
but noble Empress was received with open arms. 
Warm English hearts welcomed her to a peaceful 
home amid the sequestered retreats of Chiselhurst. 

I was informed, before leaving England, that the 
grateful Empress had presented to the gallant gen- 
tleman who escorted her from France a gold medal, 
in requital for his conduct. 

How beautifully the good qualities shine forth in 
a noble character. Generous attentions are paid 
alike to the lowly and to strangers, where no com- 
pensation could ever be expected, or a reward 
imagined. Thus the Empress, last winter, during 
the inclement season, won the admiration of the 
lofty and the lowly by inquiring into and relieving 
the distress and wants of each family of the several 
parishes around Chiselhurst. To each child she 
gave a pair of shoes, and nourishing food to all poor 
invalids. How beneficent amid her sorrows ! Many 
in her melancholy, sorrowful state would never have 
thought of the emaciated little paupers, or cared 
whether their frost-bitten toes colored the icy pave- 
ments, or their suffering parents required some 
dainty they could not procure. The conduct of the 
exiled Empress proves that her charities are bound- 
less. She could not be contented in Camden House 
until she was certain that no bare feet were exposed 

to the wintry blast. Thus she had considered the 

24 



278 France and her People. 

poor in her own loved land, and why should she 
not care for the Lord's poor upon a foreign shore ? 

The Empress last winter formed one of a society 
for distributing warm apparel to the French soldiers 
in the Prussian prisons, who were suffering from the 
rigorous climate, being in many cases entirely desti- 
tute of warm under-garments. Many had their feet 
frozen. In one company, all young men, fifteen had 
a foot or feet amputated from being frozen, while 
being conveyed from the battle-field in France to 
some fortress or prison in Prussia. As they were 
wounded and unable to move, they were thus ren- 
dered more liable to be frozen. Often they were 
thrown from the battle-field into open cars resem- 
bling the coal cars in America, and thus in their 
agony and blood-saturated garments, the poor fel- 
lows would be conveyed hundreds of miles, many 
of whom passed into that unknown world from those 
death vans of misery — a happy release. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

King William — Ovations paid the Emperor — Sedan in 187 1 — Empe- 
ror's F&te — Journey to Torquay — Cane. 

TV" ING WILLIAM of Prussia showed great re. 
-*-^- spect for the feelings of the vanquished sol- 
diers, by suppressing that scurrilous sheet, the Inde- 
pendance Beige. He did not allow it to be sold in 
any city, town, or village in Prussia where there 
were any French prisoners. This trivial act proved 
the august monarch to be possessed of a true deli- 
cacy of feeling that many would suppose the stern 
warrior did not possess. Queen Augusta also, in 
various ways, evinced great consideration for the 
feelings and comfort of the Emperor during his so- 
journ at Wilhelmshohe. 

Since my return from Europe, through the kind- 
ness of friends, I have been favored with a portion 
of the details contained in this chapter. On the 
Emperor Napoleon's arrival at Dover from Ostend, 
he was received by his family friends and an enthu- 
siastic gathering of all classes. From the extreme 
end of the long pier to the depot, acclamations wel- 
comed the stranger to their hospitable shores. They 

279 



280 France and her People. 

beheld in the Emperor the poor man's friend, the 
laborer's benefactor ; they hailed him as their ally ; 
and when they beheld him powerless (but not friend- 
less) they were incited in consequence to make the 
welcome more demonstrative. They shouted with 
all the force of those Herculean English lungs, 
" Vive l Empereur" until the special train disappeared 
in the distance. On the arrival of the Imperial cor- 
tege at Chiselhurst the same reception greeted them. 
What a pleasure this must have been to that exiled 
sovereign, to feel convinced that no hostile spirits 
invaded that concourse of friends. 

" The Emperor Napoleon is at this moment one 
of the most popular men in England, and indeed in 
Europe. Whether he travels by land or by water, 
whether he meets with a mob of the upper ten, or 
with a crowd of artisans ; whether he stands in the 
presence of soldiers or sailors, he is greeted with 
ringing cheers and cordial expressions of good will. 
Sedan has not effaced the memory of a thousand 
good actions," says the London Figaro. 

An error exists in relation to the position the 
Emperor held during his residence in London, when 
he was Prince Louis Bonaparte. Many believe that 
his Majesty was in reality a policeman, having his 
beat on the streets of London. This is a great mis- 
take, which I consider not out of place to correct. 
The Emperor, during a riot which occurred while 



France and her People. 281 

he was a resident of London, swore himself in as a 
private policeman to protect the Queen in case of an 
insurrection, or any public disturbance. Thousands 
of other gentlemen of the higher ranks took the 
oath of allegiance at the same time. From this fact 
has originated the erroneous report above stated. 
My informant was a gentleman who joined this vol- 
unteer police corps at the time the Emperor did, and 
will continue to serve during his lifetime. Their 
badge and weapon of defence is worn under the 
coat, and no rioters would ever suspect by whom 
they were surrounded. It is to be lamented that 
such an honorable corps does not exist in all .popu- 
lous cities, for at this time no one can foretell what 
events may arise in a few hours, to require the aid 
of private citizens. 

The correspondent of the London Daily Telegraph 
writes : 

" Sedan, a town enclasped by a girdle of fortifica- 
tions that is become much too tight for it, nestles 
cozily at the bottom of a huge natural cauldron, the 
sides of which are lofty hills, crowned for the most 
part with thick woods. From the edges of this 
cauldron the German batteries pelted the unfortunate 
city and the hosts drawn up under its walls, with 
projectiles innumerable, on that terrible September 
afternoon, which completed the overthrow of the 

second Empire. All the slopes of the eminences 
24* 



282 Prance and her People. 

that surround and command Sedan, as well as the 
valley itself upon which the town is built, are blotched 
with the graves of those who succumbed to that 
storm of shell. The whole district is one huge 
charnel. 

" By every roadside, in well nigh every field, in 
two-thirds of the peasants' gardens and orchards, 
within a circumference of ten miles round the for- 
tress, green mounds of various dimensions, but of 
uniform and unmistakable significance, attest the 
hugeness of the sacrifice offered up to the demon of 
war by his faithful worshippers. The smallest grave 
I have stood by to-day — and they may be counted 
by hundreds — holds two men, ' Zwei tapfere Sachsen/ 
as the inscription above it pathetically records. In 
the largest, 1525 Germans and Frenchmen lie side 
by side in the brotherhood of death. This gigantic 
trench is nearly a hundred yards long, and the 
bodies it contains are four, and in some places five, 
deep. It was excavated by a corps of French engi- 
neers on the morning after the battle, but it did not 
prove large enough for the interment of all the 
corpses that were collected in its immediate vicinity, 
so that it is flanked at either extremity by half a 
dozen more trenches of smaller size, holding from 
fifty to a hundred bodies each. It is situated in a 
potatoe field, at the end of a garden, belonging to a 
small farmhouse called Le Terme, on the heights 



France and her People, 283 

between Illy and Floing, only a few yards from a 
graceful marble monument raised by the 94th (Gross- 
herzog von Sachsen) Regiment to its fallen comrades, 
and not five minutes' walk from the coppice in which 
a battery of mitrailleuses that did infinite damage to 
the nth German Corps was stationed for a consi- 
derable portion of the day. The slaughter round this 
farm must have been something fearful : for hun- 
dreds of yards around the plateau upon which it 
stands was literally covered with dead and dying. 
One of the brothers to whom it belongs assured me 
that on the evening of the 1st, ' One could not throw 
a ten-sou piece down upon the ground in any one 
of his fields without its falling on a dead body.' 

" Standing on the heights above Illy, and glancing 
down the broad and richly cultivated vale that 
stretched away from my very feet towards Floing 
and Algerie, I could descry at least fifty more graves 
at one view, most of them covered with' rank weeds 
or hemp, but a few already bearing their first crop 
of oats, and only distinguishable from the other 
parts of the fields in which they had been dug by 
the fact that their surface projected some two feet 
above the common level of the ground. In another 
year they will have disappeared under the plough 
and the furrow. Not one out of ten is surmounted 
by even a rough wooden cross, to indicate that 
Christian warriors — good men and true — lie moul- 



284 France and her People. 

dering beneath those clusters of vividly green vege- 
tation. ' Cela fait de fameux engrais, les cadavres ! ' 
said a peasant, who was digging potatoes close to 
one of these verdant mounds. ' Voyez un peu, Mon- 
sieur, ces pommes de terre, comme elles sont belles ! ' 
and he held up a potatoe that had prospered exceed- 
ingly within two feet, at most, of a dead soldier. 

" A plain stone cross marked the spot where Mac- 
Mahon fell wounded, hard by a tall poplar tree; 
half a dozen boards, bearing inscriptions in black 
paint, ornament the graves of as many French sol- 
diers buried under a hedge in a narrow lane leading 
out of Balan to a small pasturage. The two Saxon 
soldiers mentioned above, who lie on the right bank 
of the Givonne, below Lamoncelle, are covered by a 
stone slab, at one end of which has been set up a 
headstone, recording their names and the number 
of their regiment ; and, besides these memorials, 
perhaps a dozen of the countless fosses that stud the 
countryside for many a mile in every direction are 
adorned with a couple of laths lashed together in the 
form of a cross. That is all. In shady glades of 
leafy woods, in pretty pleasure-gardens of coquettish 
chateaux, in orchards and paddocks of cozy farm- 
houses, on hillsides, and in the bosom of quiet val- 
leys, repose the gallant sons of Germany and France 
by scores and hundreds ; but those who loved Fritz 
and Jean Baptiste in life will never be able to dis- 



France and her People. 285 

cover the exact spot where those dear ones lie, 
should they make a pious pilgrimage to the battle- 
fields of Sedan. Officers and men were all huddled 
together into the earth on the day after the fight. 
The good knights are dust, and their swords are 
rust ; and their souls are with the saints, we trust. 

" The two show-places, /^r excellence, of the neigh- 
borhood are the Chateau de Bellevue, in which the 
two monarchs, victor and vanquished, met at four 
o'clock in the afternoon of the 2d ; and the Maison 
de Tisserand, a cottage on the Grande Route that 
leads from Sedan to Donchery, in front of which 
Napoleon and Bismarck, seated on two wooden 
chairs, held conference for more than an hour on the 
same morning. The chateau is little more than a 
pavilion, flanked by two tourelles, with which it 
communicates by glass corridors, commanding a 
double view of Sedan on the one hand, and of Don- 
chery and the Chateau de Paret — King William's 
headquarters during the battle of the 1st — on the 
other. The central pavilion is two stories high, with 
two rooms on a floor ; and the ground-floor was oc- 
cupied — according to the statement of the old house- 
keeper who waited upon the Emperor during his 
short sojourn in the house — for one night by Napo- 
leon and Count Moltke, his Majesty sleeping in the 
front room, and the great German strategist in the 
back. The walls of both these apartments are 



286 France and her People. 

stripped of their paper and covered with pencil auto- 
graphs of some hundreds of aspirants to immortality, 
or at least to historical notoriety. Every atom of 
furniture has been carried away, and the rooms pre- 
sent a singularly dismal, aspect. 

" The story of what took place in these two rooms 
is too well known to need repetition here. From 
the housekeeper I could only gather one personal 
anecdote, which is singularly uninteresting. It ap- 
pears that whilst the Emperor was awaiting the 
arrival of King William she brought him a glass of 
water, at the request of Count Bismarck, and, when 
he had drunk its contents, she asked him where she 
should put the glass and carafe, wherefrom to re- 
plenish it ; upon which Napoleon replied, ' Je ne sais 
pas ; ou vous voulez.' 

" The good woman, Madame Fournaise, who 
owns the Maison de Tisserand, has much more to 
say about her august guest; and exhibits, with 
genuine pride, set in a tiny frame, four louis d'or, 
which the Emperor gave her with his own hand as 
he left her humble dwelling. The Emperor, she 
states, arrived at her door early on the morning of 
the 2d, accompanied by the Prince of Moskowa, 
General Douay, and five other general officers. He 
asked for a chair, and sat down in the front garden, 
where Count Bismarck found him about ten o'clock, 
and, at his Majesty's invitation, another chair having 



France and her People. 287 

been brought out, the count took his seat beside the 
Emperor, and remained there conversing for more 
than an hour. He then accompanied the Emperor 
up a crooked little staircase to a corner room on the 
first floor, Napoleon mounting the stairs with great 
difficulty, but Bismarck springing up ' leste comme 
un ecolier,' to use Madame Fournaise's own words. 
" In that room the count took leave of Caesar; 
and the latter remained alone until about half-past 
one, when Bismarck returned en grande tenue, and 
accompanied by a squadron of the Hussars of Death, 
to escort the Emperor to the Chateau Bellevue. 
The famous room is kept by its owner in exactly the 
same order as that in which it was left by the Em- 
peror. Its furniture consists of a wooden linen press, 
a round table, and two straw-bottomed chairs. The 
paper represents two astonishing winter scenes in 
Switzerland. Over the mantel-piece is a grim en- 
graving of St. Vincent de Paul bestowing charity on 
several poor children ; and the fireplace is hidden 
by a colored screen, exhibiting a hunting subject. 
The two chairs are placed on opposite sides of the 
table ; on that farthest from the door sat Napoleon, 
his head buried in his hands for more than an hour 
after Bismarck left him. The chimney-piece is 
adorned by a frame containing the aforesaid eighty 
francs in gold, with the following inscription : ' Don- 
nes par sa Majeste l'Empereur Napoleon III., k 



288 France and her People. 

Madame Fournaise, le 2 Fbre., 1 870 ; ' and by a glass 
goblet from which the Prince de la Moskowa, who 
was lame from a wound in the leg and much ex- 
hausted by fatigue, drank a long draught of wine 
immediately after his arrival at the house. These 
are Madame Fournaise's relics, and she has managed 
to preserve them hitherto, although large sums of 
money have been more than once offered her to part 
with them. They constitute a certain source of in- 
come, and she knows it." 

The 15 th of August was quietly, but cordially, 
celebrated at Chiselhurst. Some relatives of the 
Emperor, several friends, and some persons formerly 
attached to the court had arrived from France to 
convey to the sovereign, who but a year ago still 
reigned, the expression of their regrets, their homage, 
and their devotion. At eleven o'clock high mass 
was celebrated in the church of Chiselhurst. It was 
a touching spectacle to see the Emperor, Empress, 
and the Prince Imperial making their way to the 
modest village church, followed by some courtiers 
of misfortune. At two o'clock a lunch after the 
English fashion was offered to all who had come to 
Camden House to offer their congratulations upon 
the fete-day of Napoleon. 

The Emperor received from France upon this oc- 
casion a great number of letters and flowers. Two 
bouquets profoundly affected him. One, of gigantic 



France and her People. 289 

dimensions, was the result of a subscription opened 
at Paris among the merchants, traders, and workmen. 
It was accompanied by a magnificent album, which 
contained a very sympathetic address, with several 
hundred signatures. The other bouquet was offered 
by the officers of the Imperial Guard. 

The Emperor's journey last September from his 
residence at Camden House, Chiselhurst, to Torquay, 
was a continuous scene of ovations, and probably no 
man of foreign birth ever received a warmer welcome, 
or a greater concourse of people to greet him than 
upon this occasion. They had collected at all the 
stations along the route. At Exeter, Devonshire, 
and Torquay the inhabitants turned out en masse ; 
tens of thousands welcomed the Emperor of the 
French ; ladies pressed around, bathed in tears ; the 
waving of handkerchiefs from a lofty position resem- 
bled a sea of white-capped waves, rising and falling 
by a fresh breeze ; the crowd was so dense and bois- 
terous, that the officials had to remonstrate with them 
to desist, stating that if they really appreciated the 
feelings of the Emperor they would be more calm, 
thereby assuring him of the high esteem and respect 
they bore his Majesty. This had little effect. They 
were bound to express their admiration in the loudest, 
most impressive manner. At times it was with diffi- 
culty the Emperor and suite could move, the press 
being so great. Amid all the hurrahs and English 
25 



290 France and her People. 

outbursts of cheering, an occasional Vive PEmpereur 
would resound, which must have sounded like the 
melody of a love-greeting upon the ears of the 
stricken Emperor. In a strange land, though ex- 
pressed in friendship, it must have caused a sad retro- 
spect, such as no heart can ever feel, except the one 
who has been the recipient of the honors of a nation 
for twenty years, and who has experienced the sudden 
downfall of his most cherished hopes. 

The Emperor, while enjoying a walk on the quay 
at Torquay, accidentally dropped his walking-stick 
into the sea, which caused him many regrets, the 
cane having been presented to him at the commence- 
ment of the empire, and had been his constant com- 
panion. Many efforts were made to recover the lost 
treasure, but unsuccessfully. The following day a 
young gentleman, an expert diver, hearing of the 
loss, and being a great admirer of the Emperor — he 
having a few months ago by his eloquence and argu- 
ments brought his college class over to the Imperial 
party, many of them previously entertaining other 
views — made the attempt to find the walking-stick. 
When it became known for what he was diving, many 
collected. Seven times he went down, but without 
success ; finally, upon the eighth attempt, he came 
up the happy possessor of the gold eagle-headed 
cane. He immediately repaired to the mansion 
occupied by the Emperor, where he was received by 



France and her People, 291 

Prince Murat. After he made the object of his visit 
known he was ushered into the Emperor's presence, 
who thanked him kindly for the restoration of his 
prized cane, and presented him with a fine cabinet 
portrait of himself. The young gentleman had long 
wished for such an interview, and was highly de- 
lighted with his reception ; probably his aquatic 
success will ever remain fresh in his memory. The 
last time he went down to the bottom of the sea, 
he no doubt thought he would be unfortunate ; but 
turning, with joyful feelings he espied the gold head 
shining brightly, and speedily secured it. The cane 
had lodged between two stones. 




CHAPTER XXIX. 

Embarkation — Steamer — Officers — Children — Storms — Whales — Sea 
life — Landing — New York. 

k HE day we were to embark for America was 
ushered in with a chilly wind blowing and a fine 
Scotch mist falling ; and it was not without regrets 
that I left the genial atmosphere of the Washington 
House, Liverpool, on the 25th of January, 1871, for 
the carriage that conveyed us to the tug-boat. On 
arriving at the quay, we were compelled to stand 
and " weather it out," with no protection from the 
elements, until our turn came to have our luggage 
measured, each passenger being allowed ten cubic 
feet for packages. When this ordeal was ended, we 
stepped on board the dingy boat, and soon we were 
under way to the ship. 

The Mersey is a noble river, and its banks are the 
haven of more shipping than any other stream in 
the world. The view resembles a vast forest of leaf- 
less trees, interwoven with a lattice-work of branches 
and twigs. A gay flag here and there floating in the 
mist reminded me of a lone oriole, or some other 
gaudy plumed bird perched on the tip of a majestic 

tree. 

292 



France and her People. 293 

A short period, and we came alongside of our ark 
home, that was to be. As I looked up from the tug, 
her black hull resembled a mighty impregnable bul- 
wark. I feared we could never mount ; but those 
fears were groundless, as every convenience is 
adopted for the transit from tug to steamer. My 
first salutation from Captain Grogan made a favora- 
ble impression, and I at once beheld in him one of 
her Majesty's brave sailors and an innate gentleman, 
and during the entire voyage the captain of the Italy 
proved himself to be deserving of my first impres- 
sions respecting him. 

Our steamer in size and capacity was second to 
none on the Atlantic. She was strongly, compactly 
and very conveniently constructed; the state rooms 
were large enough, well ventilated and arranged 
with a view to comfort, and extremely neat. The 
dining saloon was long, spacious, and altogether a 
most desirable rendezvous. After a hurried glance, 
I returned to the deck. The tug was homeward 
bound, and we just entering the limitless deluge of 
water, as we were now under way. All those beau- 
tiful river views were speedily fading from our sight 
— hill and dale, church spires, snug village homes, 
and kindred were left in the far misty horizon. The 
waters were smooth, but the wind fresh and high, 
rendering the deck uncomfortable. 

Dinner was announced by the doleful old ding- 

25* 



294 France and her People. 

dong bell as of yore at four o'clock ; tea at six ; 
breakfast at eight ; lunch at twelve ; and, if called 
for, a lunch in the evening. The table was abund- 
antly supplied with excellent viands. With experi- 
enced first and second stewards, and with a bevy of 
waiters to attend to every want, none could complain, 
except from imaginary causes, or the love of fault- 
finding, which I often find in travelling is inherent in 
many. Before night the sterile, rock-bound coast 
of Wales was in sight. Crags bare and bleak pre- 
sented themselves for miles ; the star-spangled sky 
was beaming with lustrous beauty ; the " chill wind 
whistled free," causing me to leave nature's crested 
diadem for a more tropical region. 

Thursday, 26th. — On making my appearance on 
deck this morning the rugged picturesque coast of 
Ireland was in view, with an island at the base of one 
of the hills, upon which a fine light-house is erected. 
The small boats were plying from inlets and coves. 
The sea was tranquil, and soon after breakfast the 
harbor of Cork and Queenstown was before us. Our 
ship now reposed quietly ; all on board were eagerly 
awaiting the arrival of a tug, which will increase our 
companions, these being the passengers of The Eng- 
land, which, owing to some accident, had to return, 
after being out at sea seven days. There was a great 
uproar at the stern ; and following the example of 
all, we also advanced. A ludicrous scene appeared. 



France and her People. 295 

■ 

Two small boats, containing orange and apple huck- 
sters, lay alongside ; there was no way provided for 
the hucksters to come on board, but come they 
would. Some of the sailors threw them a rope, and, 
strange to behold, they slipped their arms under the 
handle of their baskets, and grasping the rope, came 
up, amid the cheers of the crew, as nimbly as a mon- 
key would climb a tree. After disposing of their stock, 
down they descended by the same rope. They were 
the most expert women I ever saw. There they 
swung, and being rather corpulent, many thought 
when they came down the boat would sink. But 
they got into it safely, and they rowed off delighted 
with their success. Often during the long voyage a 
juicy orange or a mellow apple reminded us of the 
agile fruit vendors of the Emerald Isle. 

By three o'clock the steam-tug had deposited its 
cargo. Another tug also came towards us. It was 
crowded with emigrants ; many no doubt looking 
on their gem of an island home for the last time ; 
their adieus, love greetings, the last fond words, and 
love sent to the neighbors that did not come to see 
them embark, were characteristic of the kind-hearted 
nation. I walked away, for the scene was affect- 
ing, and turned to enjoy a view of the high hills 
upon which the fort is situated. The soldiers in 
their red coats looked in the distance like mounds 
of scarlet flowers, for we were far from the shore. I 



296 France and her People, 

was well pleased with the view of this harbor and 
Queenstown; and can imagine, when summer lends 
her verdant charms to hill and glen, the appearance 
would be greatly improved. 

We left the quiet waters of this harbor at three 
o'clock ; and now we are out on the stormy ocean, 
followed by hundreds of sea-gulls. They are beauti- 
ful, and very graceful in their movements ; they all 
circle around the bow, then diverge in many direc- 
tions, hover an instant upon the water, then circle 
again, and thus they continue. I was disgusted with 
the brutality of two young* gentlemen. They got 
small pieces of raw beef, tied them to about two feet 
of twine, then threw them to the unsuspecting birds, 
which would speedily swallow the meat, but the 
twine would continue to hang from their beaks. 
Such wanton cruelty should be cried down by every 
human being. 

Friday, 27th. — A cold stormy morning, with a 
head wind blowing, renders our speed slow. The 
sea is rough, and the decks desolate and cheerless. 
No land in view, — water, sky, and birds are all the 
variety. This steamer has a most delightful resort 
at the head of the stairs, called " companion way," 
which will seat ten persons. It has two doors open- 
ing upon the deck ; and here, wrapped in furs and 
blankets, we could survey all the movements of our 
passengers, which became " small by degrees and 



France and her People. 297 

beautifully less." By dinner-time the wind had in- 
creased, and it was with difficulty any one could 
walk without a support. 

Saturday morning, 28th. — Not the least abatement 
of wind or waves ; many of our sea companions could 
not make their appearance. The decks were deser- 
ted ; the children were the only lively spirits on 
board. We had twenty-two in the first cabin, all 
good, well-behaved, and orderly ; only occasionally 
some poor child was extremely unruly — I mean 
nervous. In the present age nervousness covers a 
multitude of omissions of duty, and the commission 
of nervous delinquencies are unavoidable/ and must 
always be counterbalanced by affectionate counsel or 
gentle indulgence. I became acquainted with our 
surgeon, who is a polished gentleman, and excellent 
company, which is ever more appreciated at sea than 
elsewhere. 

Sunday, 29th. — A gloomy prospect. The wind 
has increased to a dead head, and a " chopped sea " 
renders our situation most uncomfortable. We roll 
and roll in an endless monotonous manner. How 
great a pleasure would a fair wind and smooth sea 
be, if only for an hour. No preaching to-day. The 
Sabbath closed with dark and threatening clouds, 
fearful wind, — even the officers call these rough 
days. 

Monday, 30th. — The storm increases. The crash- 



298 France and her People. 

ing of crockery and the breaking of glassware are 
the unwelcome sounds that startle you just as you 
are deep in the mysteries of dream-land; the dim 
night-lamp and the cautious step of the night-watch 
soon bring you to a consciousness of your state. 
When suddenly one of those lurches that nothing 
but a screw steamer can give sends you, if you have 
not provided a brace to hold on to, into the middle 
of your state-room, and that very unceremoniously. 
This day was passed in eating, and in talking to one 
another, and questioning the ship officers about the 
weather, safety of the steamer, and sundry unimpor- 
tant interrogatories, which these officers answer most 
politely. 

Tuesday, 31st. — The sad intelligence has been 
given that the weather "thickens." Wind on the 
increase. Our speed decreases, which is not very 
cheering to any of us. The leviathans of the deep 
pitied our want of excitement, and came in sight to 
spout the briny element into silver-frosted columns 
of spray. These natural fountains are graceful ; at 
one moment on the leeward, the next instant far 
abaft; a singular rising of many crystal streams 
would indicate that there the monsters of the deep 
played with reckless freedom amid the turbulent 
waves. After indulging us with the pleasure of these 
aquatic entertainments for an hour they suddenly 
disappeared. 



France and her People. 299 

Wednesday, February 1st. — How delighted I 
would be to put on record something new, but alas, 
the storm-king has undisputed sway, and we are at 
his mercy. The cold ocean waves wash over us 
continually. 

Thursday, 2d. — Our progress is slower to-day than 
any time since we embarked. No change in the 
weather, except a heavier sea, rendering locomotion 
difficult and dangerous. We have one great bless- 
ing : "All hands on board are well ; " and by the 
avidity with which the bountiful table is daily divested 
of fish, fowl, and fruit, it is to be hoped no services 
of the representative of the healing art will be re- 
quired. I have often thought we were the most 
voracious company that ever surrounded a dinner- 
table. 

Friday, 3d. — A steamer hove in sight ; all rushed 
to the decks and hailed her with the joy of an old 
friend. It proved to be the City of London, of the 
Inman line, on her way to England. She glided 
along swiftly, as the wind for her was fair. One 
cannot realize how cheering these encounters are 
until he is at sea for many days, alone on the track- 
less ocean. To have a haven-bound company run 
up their friendly flag is an introduction after the sea- 
faring style, and one experiences a sad sensation of 
loneliness when she disappears from view ; but the 
hope of soon meeting another craft banishes the sigh 



300 France and her People. 

for the passing friend. A family, with ten children, 
often engross my attention. They are genuine repre- 
sentatives of the Green Isle, bound for a home in the 
United States. The father, for patience, is a second 
Job, and he is the most amiable, attentive person I 
ever saw. He always meets one with a smile, and 
frequently carries two little children in his arms for 
an airing. Such unselfish characters are rare jewels. 
It matters little how rough the shell, or thorny the 
burr, if the gem lies within. 

Saturday, 4th. — This is a terrible day. The wind 
blows a perfect gale ; the sea washes over us at each 
plunge, and the noise of the screw is terrific. Well 
for us our steamer is strong. I went on deck for a 
few moments to behold the waves. In vastness and 
sublimity they far exceeded my expectations. They 
arose hundreds of feet above us. The pale green 
translucent waters heaved with a convulsive motion, 
and the white foam trickled down in sheets, covering 
the water for miles ; thus we had a most beautiful 
snow scene. The immense waves forward looked too 
formidable to enter. This stormy day closed with a 
fierce raging tempest, ushering in the night. Many 
declared they would sit up all night, fearing to retire. 

Sunday morning, 5th. — I am certain every heart 
on board was thanking its Maker that we were 
brought to behold the light of this holy Sabbath, for 
we passed a dreadful night. The captain said it was 



France and her People. 301 

the worst gale he had experienced for ten years. 
The holds are all closed, rendering the cabin dark, 
and lamps have been in requisition all day. We 
make only seven knots an hour. Two religious ser- 
vices were performed to-day, one in the cabin by a 
clergyman of the Church of England, the other in 
the gentlemen's saloon. The wind is abating, and a 
calmer night is predicted. 

Monday, 6th. — The wind is still contrary, but the 
sea is gone down. Our progress is slow. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, the same slow speed. 
Still all are encouraged with the joyful news that we 
may behold land to-morrow. Such a general clean- 
ing and rubbing up of the decks, brightening the 
brass, uncovering the furniture, all in anticipation of 
coming into port. All will hail land with delight, 
for our passage has been a tedious, perilous trip. 

Thursday, 9th. — A calm sea greeted us, and a sub- 
dued wind. Every one made an effort to be present 
at the last breakfast, which was the most numerous 
and joyous gathering I had seen. About ten o'clock 
a clipper, the well-known pilot-boat, was espied, and 
soon the pilot came across in a row-boat and was 
taken on board. Those who had never before be- 
held these western shores were eager from curiosity 
to see the strange land; others, whose home was 
amid those ice-bound coasts, impatiently awaited the 

announcement of Sandy Hook; then with excited 
26 



302 France and her People, 

looks and beating hearts they counted the moments 
hours until they should meet their own beloved 
friends. 

We were some time in coming up, as the storms 
had carried away the buoy, and the road was diffi- 
cult to navigate. The shores did not present as 
charming a prospect as the verdant landscape did 
when I left in September, 1869 ; still the ice that had 
fettered land and water was broken up, and the huge 
ice-blocks floated in all directions. 

Soon after lunch Fort Lafayette was passed, then 
the broad bay and harbor were hailed with joy; and 
after a short detention we came to our moorings. 

Now the adieu must be spoken, and the friendships 
broken. There is a peculiarly fraternizing feeling 
towards those with whom you cross the deep. The 
so much dreaded and often reproached American 
custom-house officers treated us very politely, and 
we had no trouble or detention. We landed upon a 
very unpropitious day, the streets being filled with 
snow, ice, and mud. Our progress was rendered 
more tedious, as every avenue was blocked by a 
grand procession. After a trial of patience, we reached 
the Astor House, New York; and here I shall be 
compelled to bid my kind readers farewell. 

THE END. 



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